13
Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA)

Polyunsaturated fatty acids are classified as n-3 (omega-3) or n-6 (omega-6) depending on whether their first double bond is located on the third or sixth carbon from the terminal methyl group (Jones and Kubow, 2006). More than 80 percent of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids consumed in the United States consist of the 18-carbon, 2 double bond, n-6 (18:2, n-6) linoleic acid, with an average intake of about 17 g/day (IOM, 2005). The major dietary n-3 fatty acid is alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) (18:3, n-3), which is derived from certain nuts and vegetable oils (Kris-Etherton et al., 2000). Although the long-chain n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (20:5, n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (22:6, n-3) can be synthesized from linolenic acid, the efficiency (yield) of the enzymatic reactions involved is rather low (Jones and Kubow, 2006).

Epidemiological studies have indicated that Inuit populations in Greenland whose diets contain a high level of fish (and concomitant high levels of EPA and DHA) have low incidences of cardiovascular disease and rheumatoid arthritis, conditions with a significant inflammatory etiology (Dyerberg, 1993). Several mechanisms affected by n-3 fatty acids may account for these findings. Polyunsaturated fatty acids serve as the precursor molecules for eicosanoids. The primary precursor is arachidonic acid (20:4, n-6), which is enzymatically transformed into inflammatory prostaglandins or leukotrienes that contain two and four double bonds, respectively. Prostaglandins and leukotrienes synthesized from n-3 fatty acids contain three and five double bonds, respectively, and are less biologically active (Jones and Kubow, 2006). Dietary fish oil supplementation reduces synthesis of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) (Endres et al., 1989). Supplementation with n-3 fatty acids likewise reduces reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by leukocytes (Massaro et al., 2008). EPA and DHA are also the precursors for resolvins, which bring about a programmed resolution of the inflammatory process (Schwab et al., 2007), and DHA serves as the precursor for synthesis of protectins that have anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective activities (Serhan, 2006).



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13 Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) Polyunsaturated fatty acids are classified as n-3 (omega-3) or n-6 (omega-6) depending on whether their first double bond is located on the third or sixth carbon from the terminal methyl group (Jones and Kubow, 2006). More than 80 percent of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids consumed in the United States consist of the 18-carbon, 2 double bond, n-6 (18:2, n-6) linoleic acid, with an average intake of about 17 g/day (IOM, 2005). The major dietary n-3 fatty acid is alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) (18:3, n-3), which is derived from certain nuts and vegetable oils (Kris-Etherton et al., 2000). Although the long-chain n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (20:5, n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (22:6, n-3) can be synthesized from linolenic acid, the efficiency (yield) of the enzymatic reactions involved is rather low (Jones and Kubow, 2006). Epidemiological studies have indicated that Inuit populations in Greenland whose diets contain a high level of fish (and concomitant high levels of EPA and DHA) have low incidences of cardiovascular disease and rheumatoid arthritis, conditions with a significant inflammatory etiology (Dyerberg, 1993). Several mechanisms affected by n-3 fatty acids may account for these findings. Polyunsaturated fatty acids serve as the precursor molecules for eicosanoids. The primary precursor is arachidonic acid (20:4, n-6), which is enzymatically transformed into inflammatory prostaglandins or leukotrienes that contain two and four double bonds, respectively. Prostaglandins and leukotrienes synthesized from n-3 fatty acids contain three and five double bonds, respectively, and are less biologically active (Jones and Kubow, 2006). Dietary fish oil supplementation reduces synthesis of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) (Endres et al., 1989). Supple- mentation with n-3 fatty acids likewise reduces reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by leukocytes (Massaro et al., 2008). EPA and DHA are also the precursors for resolvins, which bring about a programmed resolution of the inflammatory process (Schwab et al., 2007), and DHA serves as the precursor for synthesis of protectins that have anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective activities (Serhan, 2006). 188

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189 EICOSAPENTAENOIC ACID AND DOCOSAHEXAENOIC ACID EPA AND DHA AND THE BRAIN Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are important structural components in cell membrane phospholipid bilayers, with EPA and DHA concentrated in synaptic membranes in the brain and in the retina (Dyall and Michael-Titus, 2008). Variations in the ratio of n- 3:n-6 composition may affect membrane fluidity, thickness, or other characteristics, as well as influence how proteins embedded in the membrane move and function (Lauritzen et al., 2001). There is evidence that n-3 fatty acids protect normal mitochondrial function and reduce excitotoxicity (reviewed in Dyall and Michael-Titus, 2008). Human studies (years 1990 and later) addressing the influence of EPA/DHA on resilience or treatment of central nervous system (CNS) injuries or disorders, such as stroke, epilepsy, and subarachnoid hemorrhage, are presented in Table 13-1. Likewise, Table 13-1 also lists animal studies on the effects of EPA/DHA on TBI. There are various models that explain the transportation of fatty acids through the blood-brain barrier, most of them involving complexes with albumin and circulating lipo- proteins. Other models propose that there are no specific transporters that participate in this process (Hamilton and Brunaldi, 2007). USES AND SAFETY There are insufficient data to correlate reduced concentrations of n-3 fatty acids with functional impairments; therefore, no Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) have been established. An Adequate Intake (AI) for alpha-linolenic acid, based on the average daily intake by apparently healthy people that is therefore assumed to be adequate, has been set at 1.6 g/day for adult men and 1.1 g/day for adult women (IOM, 2005). Any intake of EPA and DHA, which normally accounts for about 10 percent of total n-3 fatty acids in the diet, is considered to contribute to the AI for ALA. The most effective way to increase body stores of EPA and DHA is through increased dietary intake of oil from cold-water fish species and from krill. Intake of up to 1 g/day of n-3 fatty acids from dietary fish intake is generally regarded as having very low risk, but higher intakes can increase the risk of gastrointestinal upset as well as increases in blood glucose and concentrations of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (Kris-Etherton et al., 2002). Increased intake of n-3 fatty acids will decrease the synthesis of the eicosanoid thromboxane A2, which promotes platelet aggregation (Kramer et al., 1996). Excessive intake can therefore increase the risk of bleeding, although this was not generally observed in a number of randomized clinical trials of fish-oil supplementation (Huang et al., 2007; Javierre et al., 2006). Environmental contaminants such as mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls can accumulate in certain species of fish, presenting another potential risk. The risk from mercury toxicity can be diminished, however, by avoiding some fish species (e.g., swordfish, mackerel), and ingestion of other contaminants can be diminished by removing the skin and fat from fish before cooking. Alternatively, purified EPA and DHA can be taken in capsule form. Although increased dietary n-3 fatty acid intake reduces cellular production of ROS, the increased desaturation (double bonds) of these fatty acids increases susceptibility to lipid peroxidation, which may have detrimental effects on specific cellular processes, such as T cell–mediated immune function (Wu and Meydani, 1998). This can be ameliorated, however, by adequate supplementation with the antioxidant vitamin E (Wu and Meydani, 1998).

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190 NUTRITION AND TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY TABLE 13-1 Relevant Data Identified for n-3 Fatty Acids (DHA, EPA, ALA) Type of Type of Study Reference Injury/Insult and Subjects Treatment Findings/Results Tier 1: Clinical trials Garbagnati Ischemic Randomized, Postinjury, Neurological and function status was not et al., 2009 stroke double-blind, n-3 significantly affected by any supplements. placebo- polyunsaturated Although PUFA was associated with lower controlled trial fatty acids mortality rate, the trend was not statistically (PUFA, significant. na=72 stroke 500 mg), patients No adverse effects were observed. antioxidants, PUFA and antioxidants, or placebo for 12 months Poppitt Ischemic Randomized, 3 g/day of fish Fish oil had no effect on triglyceride level, et al., 2009 stroke placebo- oil capsules though there was a nonsignificant 7% controlled trial containing increase in the fish oil-treated group and a approx 1.2 g nonsignificant 3% decrease in the placebo n=102 stroke total n-3 fatty group. patients acid (0.7 DHA, Fish oil also had no significant effect 0.3 EPA) or on total cholesterol level, high-density placebo for 12 lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density weeks lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), LDL particle size, different sized LDL-C, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation, ferritin, or fibrinogen. Analysis of the 28-item General Health Questionnaire showed that fish oil–treated group had a mean 1.41 point decrease in total score (95% CIb: –2.76 to –0.06; p=0.04) and a mean 1.24 point decrease in social dysfunction (95% CI: –2.33 to –0.14; p=0.03). There was no change in scores for somatic symptoms, anxiety and insomnia, or depression. Adverse effects related to treatment were not assessed.

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191 EICOSAPENTAENOIC ACID AND DOCOSAHEXAENOIC ACID TABLE 13-1 Continued Type of Type of Study Reference Injury/Insult and Subjects Treatment Findings/Results Bromfield Intractable Randomized, PUFA During the double-blind phase, the number of subjects experiencing a > 50% reduction et al., 2008 focal or double-blind supplement generalized trial for 12 (EPA + DHA) in seizure frequency was not significantly epilepsy weeks, then at 2.2 mg/day higher than baseline. Median seizure open-label for in 3:2 ratio or frequency during this study phase also 4 weeks placebo showed no significant difference between the two groups. n=21 PUFA treatment also had no effect on quality of life, as measured by Quality of Life in Epilepsy survey. During the open-label phase, 79% of patients experienced decreased seizure frequency, with 33% of these patients experiencing a > 50% reduction. Analysis of serum drug concentration showed a 16% decrease in lamotrigine levels (p < 0.05); there were no changes in other drugs. Although not significant, nausea and/or diarrhea was reported more frequently in the treatment group (p=0.18). DeGiorgio Refractory Randomized, 9,600 mg of fish An average 11% increase in seizure et al., 2008 epilepsy double-blind, oil/day (2,800 frequency from baseline was observed in cross-over mg of n-3 fatty patients taking fish oil, and an average clinical trial acids) or same 14% increase was observed in those taking quantity of placebo, but these increases were not n=11 placebo significant (p=0.051). There was no significant change of seizure severity from baseline in either group. Fish oil treatment also had no effect on total cholesterol level, LDL level, high-density lipoprotein level, mean arterial pressure, or heart rate variability. However, fish oil treatment was inversely correlated with heart rate variability (SDNNc) in the highest risk patients (rsd=–0.65, p=0.03); there was no correlation between placebo and heart rate variability (SDNN). continued

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192 NUTRITION AND TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY TABLE 13-1 Continued Type of Type of Study Reference Injury/Insult and Subjects Treatment Findings/Results Tanaka Stroke Prospective, EPA (1,800 During the study period, subjects with no et al., 2008 randomized, mg/day) history of stroke who were taking EPA open-label, supplementing had significantly greater reduction in total cholesterol level (17.6% vs. 17.0%; p < blinded statin or statin endpoint trial alone for 0.0001) and triglyceride level (7.3% vs. 2.6%; p < 0.0001) than subjects in the same approximately 5 n=18,645 years subgroup who were not taking EPA. EPA subjects with history of stroke had greater reduction of triglyceride level (p < 0.001) than subjects not taking EPA. EPA supplementation had no significant effect in preventing stroke in subjects without a history of stroke, but it significantly reduced total stroke incident in subjects who had a history of stroke (HRe=0.80, 95% CI: 0.64–0.997; p=0.047). No adverse effects were mentioned. Yoneda Subarachnoid Prospective, Oral EPA supplementation significantly reduced et al., 2008 hemorrhage non- administration the incidence of symptomatic vasospasm (SAH) randomized of EPA (1,800 in the treatment group compared to the trial mg) daily for 10 control group (14% vs. 36%, p=0.019). The days (day 4–14); EPA group also had a lower level of low- n=101 SAH control group density areas attributable to vasospasm than patients did not receive the controls (4% vs. 29%, p=0.001). EPA More patients from the EPA group had a good outcome at 1 month after onset of SAH (85% vs. 64% in control group, p=0.022). The control group had more deaths than the EPA group (11% vs. 0%, p=0.020). No adverse effects were observed. Puri et al., Chronic Pilot, EPA (1 g) + Treatment with n-3 fatty acids had 2007 refractory randomized, DHA (0.7 g) or no significant effect on the percentage change of phosphodiesters, γ-nucleotide epilepsy double-blind, placebo daily placebo- for 12 weeks triphosphate, or broadband component. controlled trial No adverse effects were mentioned. n=7 patients average age: 50.7±13.6 years

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193 EICOSAPENTAENOIC ACID AND DOCOSAHEXAENOIC ACID TABLE 13-1 Continued Type of Type of Study Reference Injury/Insult and Subjects Treatment Findings/Results Yuen et al., Epilepsy Randomized, 1 g of EPA + Greater proportion of patients on PUFA than on placebo had a > 50% seizure 2005 placebo- 0.7 g of DHA controlled, or matching reduction in the first 6 weeks (17% vs. 0%, 95% CI: 1.5–3.6%; p < 0.05), but there was double-blind placebo daily trial for no difference between weeks 6 and 12. 12 weeks, During the open-label period (weeks followed by 13–24), total seizure and complex partial open-label trial seizure in previously placebo-treated for another 12 patients was reduced in weeks 13–18 weeks when compared to the first 6 weeks of the trial all patients (p=0.051). received PUFA There was no significant difference in rescue n=57 medication doses between the two groups during the blind period. But the PUFA group had greater decrease during weeks 19–24, with 1.2 from previous range of 1.9–2.3. There was no significant difference in serum antiepileptic drug concentration. Sleepiness, fatigue and breathlessness, diarrhea, recurrence of depression and paranoia, and status epilepticus were reported among only a small number of subjects on supplements (n=5, one subject reporting per adverse effect). continued

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194 NUTRITION AND TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY TABLE 13-1 Continued Type of Type of Study Reference Injury/Insult and Subjects Treatment Findings/Results GISSI- Myocardial Randomized, 2×2 factorial At 6 months, patients taking PUFA had Prevenzione infarction placebo- design: vitamin decreased triglyceride concentration compared to controls (p < 0.05). Investigators, (MI), controlled, E (300 mg 1999 stroke, and multi-center, synthetic Two-way analysis of PUFA treatment (vs. no α-tocopherol) or death from open-label PUFA) for the entire study period showed cardiovascular trial (Gruppo placebo and n-3 that PUFA-treatment patients were at lower causes Italiano per lo PUFA (850–882 risk for combined endpoints of death, non- (primary Studio della mg EPA and fatal MI, and non-fatal stroke (RRf=0.90, outcome Sopravvivenza DHA as ethyl 95% CI: 0.82–0.99; p=0.048). events) nell’Infarto esters in average miocardico) ratio of EPA/ Four-way analysis of all four treatment DHA 1:2) groups confirmed that PUFA group was n=11,324 at lower risk for combined endpoints of patients aged death, non-fatal MI, and non-fatal stroke 49–70 years (RR=0.85, 95% CI: 0.74–0.98; p=0.023) with recent (≤ and combined endpoints of cardiovascular 3 months) MI disease (CVD) death, non-fatal MI, and non-fatal stroke (RR=0.80, 95% CI: 0.68–0.95; p=0.008). PUFA patients also had reduced risk of individual mortality events: CVD death (RR=0.70, 95% CI: 0.56–0.87; p=0.042), coronary death (RR=0.65, 95% CI: 0.51–0.84; p=0.0226), and sudden death (RR=0.55, 95% CI: 0.40–0.76; p=0.01). Analyzing the combined effects of PUFA and vitamin E showed that treatment reduced the risk for combined endpoints of death, non-fatal MI, and non-fatal stroke (RR=0.86, 95% CI: 0.74–0.99) and for CVD death, non-fatal MI, and non-fatal stroke (RR=0.88, 95% CI: 0.75–1.03). Total mortality also was reduced in PUFA + vitamin E group (RR=0.80, 95% CI: 0.67–0.95) compared to controls. The risk of combined death, non-fatal MI, and non- fatal stroke in PUFA + vitamin E patients was similar to patients taking PUFA alone. Gastrointestinal disturbances and nausea were reported as the most frequent side effects among 4.9% and 1.4% of n-3 PUFA recipients, respectively.

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195 EICOSAPENTAENOIC ACID AND DOCOSAHEXAENOIC ACID TABLE 13-1 Continued Type of Type of Study Reference Injury/Insult and Subjects Treatment Findings/Results Tier 2: Observational studies Mozaffarian Ischemic Prospective Fish Tuna/other baked or broiled fish: compared to subjects with consumption of < 1 time/ et al., 2005 stroke cohort study consumption (tuna, other month, HR (adjusted for CVD risk factors) n=4,775 baked or for those with intake of 1–3 times/month > 65 years broiled fish, and was 0.86 (95% CI: 0.65–1.13), 1–4 times/ old, with no fried fish or fish week was 0.74 (95% CI: 0.57–0.97), and ≥ 5 times/week was 0.72 (95% CI: history of sandwich. Note: cerebrovascular intake of tuna 0.53–0.98); this trend was significant (p for disease at and other baked trend=0.02). baseline or broiled fish Further analysis of the trend showed that is positively follow-up at the significance existed for period between correlated with approximately baseline and 6 years (p=0.03), but not years DHA+EPA 12 years 6 to 12. levels, but fried fish and fish Risk of ischemic stroke was reduced in sandwich are tuna/other fish consumers: HR=0.85 for 1–3 not) times/month (95% CI: 0.63–1.15), HR=0.72 for 1–4 times/week (95% CI: 0.54–0.96), and HR=0.68 for ≥ 5 times/week (95% CI: 0.48–0.95; p for trend=0.009). Again, the trend was significant from baseline to 6 years (p=0.02), but not from years 6 to 12. Intake frequency had no significant impact on hemorrhagic stroke. Fried fish/fish sandwich: compared to those who ate < 1 time/month, total stroke risk was increased in those who consumed 1–3 times/month (HR=1.15, 95% CI: 0.95– 1.39) and ≥ 1 time/week (HR=1.30, 95% CI: 1.04–1.61; p for trend=0.02). Analysis of follow-up period breakdown was not significant. Increased risk of ischemic stroke also was observed in these two groups consuming fried fish/fish sandwiches (1–3 times/month: HR=1.17, 95% CI: 0.96–1.43; ≥ 1 time/ week: HR=1.36, 95% CI: 1.08–1.72; p for trend=0.008). This trend was significant during years 6 to 12 (p=0.03). Intake frequency had no significant impact on hemorrhagic stroke. Apart from the increased risk of stroke associated with fried fish/fish sandwich consumption, no other adverse effects were mentioned. continued

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196 NUTRITION AND TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY TABLE 13-1 Continued Type of Type of Study Reference Injury/Insult and Subjects Treatment Findings/Results Using intake of > 1 g/day as reference, Caicoya, Stroke Population- Fish 2002 based, case- consumption stroke risk in subjects eating 1–22.5 g control study of fish per day was 70% lower (adjusted ORg=0.30, 95% CI: 0.12–0.78). Adjusted n=913 OR was 0.44 in those with intake of 23–45 g/day (95% CI: 0.18–1.41), 0.59 in those with intake of 46–90 g/day (95% CI: 0.24–1.47), and 0.76 in those with intake of 91–250 g/day (95% CI: 0.27–2.1). Risk of stroke increased with consumption of n-3 fatty acid. Compared to those consuming < 115 mg/day, adjusted OR for 116–319 mg/day was 1.14 (95% CI: 0.60–1.88), for 320–659 mg/day was 1.37 (95% CI: 0.91–2.20), and for > 659 mg/day was 1.76 (95% CI: 0.96–3.26); the trend was significant (χ2 for trend=2.7, p=0.01). Compared to those with fish intake of < 11.2 g/day, adjusted OR for cerebral infarction in those consuming 11.3–28.7 g/ day was 1.05 (95% CI: 0.64–1.65), intake of 28.8–46.5g/day had OR=0.90 (95% CI: 0.55–1.48), and intake of > 46.5 g/day had OR=1.98 (95% CI: 1.08–3.45); the trend was not significant. OR of small, deep cerebral infarction in subjects consuming > 46.5 g/day was 3.21 (95% CI: 1.11–9.20); however, OR for superficial cerebral infarction and intraparenchymatous hemorrhage were not significant. Cerebral infarction in those consuming > 659 mg/day of n-3 fatty acid had adjusted OR=1.89 (95% CI: 0.95–3.75). Besides finding that increased fish consumption was associated with increased risk of stroke and cerebral infarction, no other significant adverse effects were mentioned.

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197 EICOSAPENTAENOIC ACID AND DOCOSAHEXAENOIC ACID TABLE 13-1 Continued Type of Type of Study Reference Injury/Insult and Subjects Treatment Findings/Results Men who consumed fish > 1 time/month He et al., Stroke Prospective Fish 2002 cohort study consumption had significantly lower risk of ischemic (Health stroke than those who consumed fish < 1 time/month (p < 0.05). Specifically, Professional Follow-up cumulative consumption of 1–3 times/ Study) month had a 43% reduction in risk (RR=0.57, 95% CI: 0.35–0.95), once/ n=43,671 men week had a 44% reduction (RR=0.56, 95% CI: 0.37–0.84), 2–4 times/week had 45% reduction (RR=0.36–0.85), and ≥ 5 times/ week had a 46% reduction (RR=0.54, 95% CI: 0.31–0.94); however, test for trend was not significant. Compared to men whose cumulative intake of n-3 PUFA was < 0.05 g/day, those with higher intake had lower risk of ischemic stroke. Intake of 0.05–0.2 g/day was associated with 44% risk reduction (RR=0.56, 95% CI: 0.35–0.88), 0.2–0.4 g/ day was associated with 36% reduction (RR=0.63, 95% CI: 0.40–0.98), and 0.4–0.6 g/day was associated with 46% reduction (RR=0.54, 95% CI: 0.32–0.91). Intake of > 0.06 g/day did not significantly reduce risk of ischemic stroke. And test for trend was also not significant. Fish consumption and n-3 PUFA intake had no effect on hemorrhagic stroke. And effects of fish consumption on ischemic stroke were not modified by use of fish oil, vitamin E, aspirin, or linolenic acid. Schlanger Epilepsy n=5 5 g/day of After 6 months, seizures of grand mal et al., 2002 secondary to a spread stopped completely in 3 patients, reduced to observation other CNS containing 65% once a month in 1 patient, and reduced to period: 6 diseases n-3 PUFAs 3 times/week in another patient. 1 patient months experienced seizure of petit mal. In this patient, frequency of petit mal was reduced to once/week from 5 times/week. None of the patients experienced adverse effects. continued

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198 NUTRITION AND TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY TABLE 13-1 Continued Type of Type of Study Reference Injury/Insult and Subjects Treatment Findings/Results Iso et al., Stroke Prospective Fish and Increase of fish intake was inversely 2001 cohort study seafood associated with risk (adjusted for age (Nurses Health consumption and smoking) of total stroke (p for Study) trend=0.005), ischemic stroke (p=0.04), thrombotic infarction (p=0.02), and lacunar n=79,839 infarction (p=0.008). After further adjusting women with for CVD risk factors, intake of fruits no history of and vegetables, saturated and trans fat, stroke, cancer, linoleic acid, animal protein, and calcium, CVD, diabetes, inverse association was still significant for or high thrombotic infarction (p=0.03) and lacunar cholesterol infarction (p=0.007). level For thrombotic infarction, compared to fish 14-year intake of < 1 time/month, multivariate RR observation for intake of 1–3 times/month was 0.77 period (95% CI: 0.46–1.30) and for > 2 times/ week was 0.52 (95% CI: 0.27–0.99). For lacunar infarction, multivariate RR for fish intake of 1–3 times/month was 0.63 (95% CI: 0.32–1.24) and for > 2 times/week was 0.28 (95% CI: 0.12–0.67). Increase in PUFA intake was inversely associated with risk of total stroke (p for trend=0.01), lacunar infarction (p=0.01), hemorrhagic stroke (p=0.03), and SAH (p=0.03). After further adjustment for CVD risk factors and dietary pattern, the inverse association remained significant only for lacunar infarction (p=0.004). Compared to PUFA intake in the lowest quintile (median intake of 0.077 g/day), multivariate RR for lacunar infarction was 0.89 (95% CI: 0.55–1.43) in the 2nd quintile and 0.37 (95% CI: 0.19–0.73) in the 5th quintile. When n-3 fatty acid intake exceeded 3 g/day (or, approximately the consumption of fish 3 times or more per day), bleeding time was prolonged.

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199 EICOSAPENTAENOIC ACID AND DOCOSAHEXAENOIC ACID TABLE 13-1 Continued Type of Type of Study Reference Injury/Insult and Subjects Treatment Findings/Results Tier 3: Animal studies Mills et al., Traumatic Adult, male Postinjury, oral Immunohistochemical analysis showed 2010; Bailes axonal Sprague- supplementation that injured rats without n-3 fatty acids and Mills, injury, impact Dawley rats of n-3 fatty supplement had significantly increased 2010 acceleration acids (10 or 40 amyloid precursor protein-labeled axons than sham-injured rats (p < 0.05) and rats injury mg/kg/day) or receiving n-3 fatty supplements (p < 0.05); no treatment there was no significant difference between supplemented rats and sham-injured rats. Further immunohistochemical analysis showed that sham-injured rats and rats receiving n-3 supplementation had significantly fewer caspase-3 positive axons than injured, unsupplemented rats (p < 0.05). Injury significantly reduced Sir2α expression Wu et al., TBI, mild Sprague- Preinjury, (p < 0.05 vs. sham-injured rats), but n-3 2007 fluid Dawley rats diet percussion supplemented fatty acid supplementation significantly restored it (p < 0.05). Level of oxidized injury (FPI) with n-3 fatty protein was increased after injury (p < 0.01 acids (1.4% DHA and vs. sham), but was reduced by n-3 fatty acid supplementation (p < 0.01). Sir2α 13.5% EPA) or regular diet for expression was negatively correlated with oxidized protein level (ri=–0.67, p < 0.05). 4 weeks AMPK and p-AMPK levels were significantly reduced by injury (p < 0.05 vs. sham), but were increased to the same level as sham-injured rats by n-3 fatty acid supplementation. In sham-injured and n-3 fatty acid treated rats, Sir2α was correlated with AMPK (r=0.82, p < 0.05) and p-AMPK (r=0.96, p < 0.05). The correlations were not significant in injured rats. Ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase was significantly reduced in injured rats (p < 0.05 vs. sham), but was restored in n-3 fatty acid treated rats. continued

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200 NUTRITION AND TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY TABLE 13-1 Continued Type of Type of Study Reference Injury/Insult and Subjects Treatment Findings/Results Wu et al., TBI, mild Male, Sprague- Preinjury, diet Learning ability in rats was assessed with 2004 fluid Dawley rats supplemented Morris water maze. Rats fed with fish oil percussion with fish oil supplemented diet performed significantly injury model (12.4% DHA better than rats fed with regular diet (p < 0.05) and were similar to sham-injured and 13.5 EPA) or regular diet rats. Swimming speed was similar across all for 4 weeks groups. before injury Levels of BDNF, CREB, and synapsin I were and for 1 week significantly reduced by injury (p < 0.05 vs. after injury sham), but were restored to normal levels with n-3 fatty acid supplementation. Compared to sham-injured rats, injured rats on regular diet had higher level of oxidized protein (p < 0.01). But injured rats fed with n-3 fatty acid supplemented diet had significantly lower level of oxidized protein compared to injured rats on regular diet and sham-injured rats on both diets (p < 0.01). a n: sample size. b CI: confidence interval. c SDNN: standard deviation of all normal R-R intervals for 1 hour, where R-R is the time between two r-waves on the ECG. d rs: Spearman’s correlation. e HR: hazard ratio. f RR: relative risk. g OR: odds ratio. h χ2: Chi-square. i r: correlation coefficient. EVIDENCE SUGGESTING INCREASED RESILIENCE Human Studies There have been no human studies examining the role of EPA/DHA in providing re- silience to traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, several randomized clinical trials have examined the effect of EPA/DHA on other neurological diseases, such as epilepsy and stroke, with mixed results. In a clinical trial including 942 Japanese hypercholesterolemic patients with stroke, use of EPA (1,800 mg/day for approximately five years) led to a significant re- duction of stroke recurrence (Tanaka et al., 2008). Use of n-3 fatty acids also was associated with a lower risk of mortality in stroke patients in a small trial (n = 72) (Garbagnati et al., 2009). In another trial including 102 ischemic stroke patients, however, fish oil supplementa- tion (1,200 mg/day) for 12 weeks produced no significant differences from placebo in any lipids, inflammatory, hemostatic, or composite mood parameters (Poppitt et al., 2009). In a small trial including 51 epilepsy patients, seizure frequency was reduced over the first six weeks of supplementation with n-3 fatty acids (1,700 mg/day), but the protective effect was not sustained thereafter (Yeun et al., 2005). Additional studies (from 1990) addressing the influence of EPA/DHA on other CNS injuries or disorders in humans, such as stroke, epi-

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201 EICOSAPENTAENOIC ACID AND DOCOSAHEXAENOIC ACID lepsy, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and Alzheimer’s disease are presented in Table 13-1. The occurrence or absence of adverse effects in humans is included if reported by the authors. Animal Studies A series of animal studies (Wu et al., 2004, 2007) showed that preinjury intake of an n-3 fatty acid–enriched diet (8 percent of total energy) could counteract some of the damag- ing effects of TBI by, for example, normalizing levels of molecular systems associated with energy homeostasis (e.g., Sir2α), ameliorating protein oxidation, and improving learning ability (Table 13-1). These results suggest potential neuroprotective effects of n-3 fatty acids on TBI. EVIDENCE INDICATING EFFECT ON TREATMENT Human Studies There have been no clinical trials conducted to determine the efficacy of n-3 fatty acid infusion for treatment of TBI. Nevertheless, n-3 fatty acid infusion into healthy human subjects affects several inflammatory pathways in a way that could be beneficial for TBI patients: platelet aggregation and thromboxane B2 synthesis were reduced within 60 minutes of infusion (Elmadfa et al., 1993). In a different study, the ratio of n-3 to n-6 fatty acids in monocyte membranes likewise increased, monocyte synthesis of interleukin-1 and TNF decreased, and monocyte adhesion/transendothelial migration decreased within 48 hours after initiation of infusion (Mayer et al., 2003). Animal Studies In a 2010 study using an impact acceleration head injury model, 40 adult male Sprague- Dawley rats were assigned to four groups (n = 10 per group), of which two groups received dietary supplementation of n-3 fatty acids (EPA:DHA = 2:1) at a dosage of 10 or 40 mg/kg/ day, starting on postinjury day one (Mills et al., 2010). The authors found that, compared to injured rats on the control diet, n-3 fatty acids significantly reduced the number of beta- amyloid precursor protein-positive (injured) axons at 30 days postinjury, achieving levels similar to those in uninjured animals. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The n-3 fatty acid status of the active-duty military population is unknown. A survey by Lieberman et al. (2010) sought to determine the current usage of dietary supplements in U.S. Army soldiers on active duty. Fish oil was grouped in an “other” category that included sup- plements such as melatonin, caffeine, coenzyme Q10, and lycopene. The authors reported that 11 percent of military personnel in combat-arms positions and 23 percent of those in Special Forces were taking “other” supplements. Data on the EPA and DHA concentrations measured in frozen serum (some archived for up to several years) from military personnel suggest that the levels are lower than in the civilian population (Lewis et al., 2011). There were a number of methodological differences, however, in the comparison civilian studies, such as measurement of fresh (not frozen) serum samples, expression of DHA as a percent- age of fatty acids in serum phospholipids (rather than total fatty acids), or measurement of DHA levels in red blood cell membranes (rather than serum). Differences in DHA concentra-

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202 NUTRITION AND TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY tions between military and civilian populations might thus be attributable to methodologi- cal issues. In order to definitively determine if such differences exist, it will be necessary to conduct a prospective study in which samples from both populations are collected, stored, processed, and assayed in a uniform manner. By better determining the n-3 fatty acid status of military personnel, these data will also provide a basis for recommending increases in intake of n-3 fatty acid should future research findings indicate a role in resilience to TBI. It is well documented that fish-oil supplementation will decrease inflammation. The in- fluences of n-3 fatty acids on prostaglandin, leukotriene, cytokine, and ROS were described earlier in this chapter, and extensive reviews are available (Calder, 2006; Massaro et al., 2008). When taken orally, the effects of n-3 fatty acids are not evident for days to weeks because of their slow incorporation into cellular membranes. Initiation of oral administra- tion after TBI therefore may not be of immediate benefit (although when evaluated 30 days after injury, the 2010 animal study by Mills and colleagues showed reductions in neuronal toxicity). On the other hand, evidence from human subjects indicates that intravenous ad- ministration of n-3 fatty acids can have more immediate effects. This is especially relevant to military operational settings, where the feasibility of a feeding tube or oral administration is greatly reduced immediately following injury. Overall, continuous administration—whether enteral, parenteral, or intravenous—is considered to be most effective in the early phase of severe TBI. RECOMMENDATION 13-1. DoD should conduct animal studies that examine the effectiveness of preinjury and postinjury oral administration of current commercial preparations of purified n-3 fatty acids on TBI outcomes. RECOMMENDATION 13-2. Based on the evidence that fish oil decreases inflamma- tion within hours of continuous administration, human clinical trials that investigate fish oil or purified n-3 fatty acids as a treatment of TBI are recommended. For acute cases of TBI, it should be noted that there are intravenous fish oil formulations available in Europe, but these are not approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Continuous enteral feeding with a feeding formula containing fish oil should provide equivalent effects for this purpose in the early phase of severe TBI when enteral access becomes available. REFERENCES Bailes, J. E., and J. D. Mills. 2010. Docosahexaenoic acid reduces traumatic axonal injury in a rodent head injury model. Journal of Neurotrauma 27(9):1617–1624. Bromfield, E., B. Dworetzky, S. Hurwitz, Z. Eluri, L. Lane, S. Replansky, and D. Mostofsky. 2008. A randomized trial of polyunsaturated fatty acids for refractory epilepsy. Epilepsy and Behavior 12(1):187–190. Caicoya, M. 2002. Fish consumption and stroke: A community case-control study in Asturias, Spain. Neuroepi- demiology 21(3):107–114. Calder, P. C. 2006. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, inflammation, and inflammatory diseases. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 83(6 Suppl.):1505S–1519S. DeGiorgio, C. M., P. Miller, S. Meymandi, and J. A. Gornbein. 2008. N-3 fatty acids (fish oil) for epilepsy, cardiac risk factors, and risk of sudep: Clues from a pilot, double-blind, exploratory study. Epilepsy and Behavior 13(4):681–684. Dyall, S. C., and A. T. Michael-Titus. 2008. Neurological benefits of omega-3 fatty acids. Neuromolecular Medicine 10(4):219–235. Dyerberg, J. 1993. Epidemiology of n-3 fatty acids and disease. In Fatty acids and vascular disease, edited by R. De Caterina, S. Endres, S. D. Kristensen and E. B. Schmidt. London: Springer-Verlag.

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