Refractory epilepsy Epilepsy that is resistant to treatment.

Rhinorrhea In the context of brain injury, cerebral spinal fluid leakage from the nose.

Rotarod performance test A performance test applied to animals that uses a rotating rod with forced motor activity being applied. It measures parameters such as riding time (seconds) or endurance, balance, and coordination.

Rotarod score Measures performance on a Rotarod treadmill in order to assess motor coordination, and thus neurological performance, in mice and rats.

Second impact syndrome A repeat concussion that occurs before the brain recovers from the first, usually within a short period of time (hours, days, or weeks), that results in brain swelling, permanent brain damage, and even death.

Stupor A state of consciousness in which the patient is unresponsive but can be aroused by a strong stimulus.

Subarachnoid hemorrhage Bleeding in the space beneath the arachnoid mater, a membrane that covers the brain. This area, called the subarachnoid space, normally contains cerebrospinal fluid. Such hemorrhage can lead to stroke, seizures, and other complications.

Synapses The junction between the axon terminals of a neuron and the receiving cell that permits neurons to pass signals to individual target cells. Most neurons achieve their effect by releasing chemicals, the neurotransmitters, to a receiving cell.

Syndrome of inadequate secretion of antidiuretic hormone and hypothyroidism A common fluid and hormonal imbalance occurring as a result of disruption to the pituitary, thyroid, or other glands.

Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) The highest average daily nutrient intake level that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in the genera population. As intake increases above the UL, the potential risk of adverse effects may increase.

Vasospasm A condition in which blood vessels spasm, leading to vasoconstriction, that can induce tissue ischemia and death (necrosis). Cerebral vasospasm may arise in the context of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Symptomatic vasospasm or delayed cerebral ischemia is a major contributor to postoperative stroke and death, especially after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Vasospasm typically appears four to ten days after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

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