TABLE 4-1 Plausible Mechanisms of Action by Selected Nutrients and Food Components That Might Affect TBI Outcomesa

Nutrient/Mechanistic Target

Edema

Reduced CBF

Hypoxia

Inflammation

Oxidative Stress

Apoptosis

Ionic Disturbances

Antioxidants (vit E, vit C)

 

 

 

X

X

 

 

Branched-chain amino acids

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Choline

X

 

 

 

 

X

 

Creatine

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Curcumin

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Flavonoids

 

 

 

X

X

X

 

Ketogenic diet

 

 

X

 

X

 

 

Magnesium

 

X

 

 

 

 

X

n-3 FAs

 

 

 

X

X

 

 

Resveratrol

 

X

 

X

X

 

 

Vitamin D + Progesterone

X

 

 

X

X

X

 

Zinc

 

 

 

X

X

X

 

aThe information in this table does not imply there is any evidence from animal models or human trials showing benefits in ameliorating TBI. The table was constructed to demonstrate that those nutrients and food components act on multiple and diverse processes that are common to brain injury, and therefore their effects (beneficial and adverse) should be reviewed. Summaries of reviews and committee’s conclusions and recommendations are found in Chapters 616.

BOX 4-2

Literature Search Criteria and Vocabulary

Inclusion Criteria

  • Health condition: patients or animal models of TBI (including in the developing brain), subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracranial aneurysm, stroke, anoxic or hypoxic ischemia, epilepsy

  • Study designs: (1) randomized controlled trials or clinical controlled studies, (2) epidemiological/obser­vational studies, (3) animal studies, (4) reviews and meta-analyses

  • No minimum sample size or age limit in human trials

  • Language: limited to articles published in English

  • Publication date: 1990 and later

  • Dietary supplementation or therapeutic use of nutrient

Search Vocabulary

Health Condition:

  • Brain injuries: brain concussion, traumatic brain hemorrhage, chronic brain injury, diffuse axonal injury, posttraumatic epilepsy, pneumocephalus

  • Subarachnoid hemorrhage or intracranial hemorrhage

  • Intracranial aneurysm

  • Hypoxia-ischemia, brain

  • Stroke

  • Epilepsy



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement