Burke, P. A., L. S. Young, and B. R. Bistrian. 2010. Metabolic vs nutrition support: A hypothesis. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 34(5):546–548.

Cerra, F. B., M. R. Benitez, G. L. Blackburn, R. S. Irwin, K. Jeejeebhoy, D. P. Katz, S. K. Pingleton, J. Pomposelli, J. L. Rombeau, E. Shronts, R. R. Wolfe, and G. P. Zaloga. 1997. Applied nutrition in ICU patients. A consensus statement of the American College of Chest Physicians. Chest 111(3):769–778.

Coester, A., C. R. Neumann, and M. I. Schmidt. 2010. Intensive insulin therapy in severe traumatic brain injury: A randomized trial. Journal of Trauma 68(4):904–911.

Dickerson, R. N. 2011. Optimal caloric intake for critically ill patients: First, do no harm. Nutrition in Clinical Practice 26(1):48–54.

Doig, G. S., F. Simpson, S. Finfer, A. Delaney, A. R. Davies, I. Mitchell, and G. Dobb. 2008. Effect of evidence-based feeding guidelines on mortality of critically ill adults: A cluster randomized controlled trial. The Journal of the American Medical Association 300(23):2731–2741.

Doig, G. S., P. T. Heighes, F. Simpson, E. A. Sweetman, and A. R. Davies. 2009. Early enteral nutrition, provided within 24 h of injury or intensive care unit admission, significantly reduces mortality in critically ill patients: A meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Intensive Care Medicine 35(12):2018–2027.

Duke, J. H., Jr., S. B. Jorgensen, J. R. Broell, C. L. Long, and J. M. Kinney. 1970. Contribution of protein to caloric expenditure following injury. Surgery 68(1):168–174.

Fahy, B. G., A. M. Sheehy, and D. B. Coursin. 2009. Glucose control in the intensive care unit. Critical Care Medicine 37(5):1769–1776.

Finfer, S., D. R. Chittock, S. Y. Su, D. Blair, D. Foster, V. Dhingra, R. Bellomo, D. Cook, P. Dodek, W. R. Henderson, P. C. Hebert, S. Heritier, D. K. Heyland, C. McArthur, E. McDonald, I. Mitchell, J. A. Myburgh, R. Norton, J. Potter, B. G. Robinson, and J. J. Ronco. 2009. Intensive versus conventional glucose control in critically ill patients. The New England Journal of Medicine 360(13):1283–1297.

Gramlich, L., K. Kichian, J. Pinilla, N. J. Rodych, R. Dhaliwal, and D. K. Heyland. 2004. Does enteral nutrition compared to parenteral nutrition result in better outcomes in critically ill adult patients? A systematic review of the literature. Nutrition 20(10):843–848.

Hansen, T. K., S. Thiel, P. J. Wouters, J. S. Christiansen, and G. Van den Berghe. 2003. Intensive insulin therapy exerts antiinflammatory effects in critically ill patients and counteracts the adverse effect of low mannose-binding lectin levels. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 88(3):1082–1088.

Hartl, R., L. M. Gerber, Q. Ni, and J. Ghajar. 2008. Effect of early nutrition on deaths due to severe traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neurosurgery 109(1):50–56.

Hoffer, L. J., B. R. Bistrian, V. R. Young, G. L. Blackburn, and D. E. Matthews. 1984. Metabolic effects of very low calorie weight reduction diets. Journal of Clinical Investigation 73(3):750–758.

Ishibashi, N., L. D. Plank, K. Sando, and G. L. Hill. 1998. Optimal protein requirements during the first 2 weeks after the onset of critical illness. Critical Care Medicine 26(9):1529–1535.

Jensen, G. L., J. Mirtallo, C. Compher, R. Dhaliwal, A. Forbes, R. F. Grijalba, G. Hardy, J. Kondrup, D. Labadarios, I. Nyulasi, J. C. Castillo Pineda, and D. Waitzberg. 2010. Adult starvation and disease-related malnutrition: A proposal for etiology-based diagnosis in the clinical practice setting from the international consensus guideline committee. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 34(2):156–159.

Koretz, R. L., A. Avenell, T. O. Lipman, C. L. Braunschweig, and A. C. Milne. 2007. Does enteral nutrition affect clinical outcome? A systematic review of the randomized trials. American Journal of Gastroenterology 102(2):412–429; quiz 468.

Krishnan, J. A., P. B. Parce, A. Martinez, G. B. Diette, and R. G. Brower. 2003. Caloric intake in medical ICU patients: Consistency of care with guidelines and relationship to clinical outcomes. Chest 124(1):297–305.

Lin, L. Y., H. C. Lin, P. C. Lee, W. Y. Ma, and H. D. Lin. 2007. Hyperglycemia correlates with outcomes in patients receiving total parenteral nutrition. American Journal of the Medical Sciences 333(5):261–265.

Ling, P. R., J. H. Schwartz, and B. R. Bistrian. 1997. Mechanisms of host wasting induced by administration of cytokines in rats. American Journal of Physiology 272(3 Pt 1):E333–339.

Ling, P. R., R. J. Smith, and B. R. Bistrian. 2007. Acute effects of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia on hepatic oxidative stress and the systemic inflammatory response in rats. Critical Care Medicine 35(2):555–560.

Liu-DeRyke, X., D. S. Collingridge, J. Orme, D. Roller, J. Zurasky, and D. H. Rhoney. 2009. Clinical impact of early hyperglycemia during acute phase of traumatic brain injury. Neurocritical Care 11(2):151–157.

Mazaki, T., and K. Ebisawa. 2008. Enteral versus parenteral nutrition after gastrointestinal surgery: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials in the English literature. Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 12(4):739–755.

McClave, S. A., R. G. Martindale, V. W. Vanek, M. McCarthy, P. Roberts, B. Taylor, J. B. Ochoa, L. Napolitano, and G. Cresci. 2009. Guidelines for the provision and assessment of nutrition support therapy in the adult critically ill patient: Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) and American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ASPEN). Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 33(3):277–316.

The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement