Calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods: Foods and beverages that contribute few vitamins and minerals to the diet but contain substantial amounts of fat and/or sugar and are high in calories. Consumption of these foods, such as sugar-sweetened beverages, candy, and chips, may contribute to excess caloric intake and unwanted weight gain in children.

Caries: Decay of a tooth.

Child care: Supervising or providing nurturing to a child, especially by someone other than the child’s primary caretaker.

Community providers: Include child care providers, faith-based organizations, librarians, and schools and teachers.

Developmentally appropriate sleep durations: According to the National Sleep Foundation, developmentally appropriate sleep durations are as follows:

  • newborns, birth to <3 months: 10.5–18 hours in a 24-hour period;
  • infants, 3 months to <12 months: 9–12 hours during the night and 30-minute to 2-hour naps one to four times a day;
  • toddlers, 1 year to <3 years: 12–14 hours in a 24-hour period; and
  • preschoolers, 3 years to <5 years: 11–13 hours in a 24-hour period.

Dietary Guidelines for Americans: The Dietary Guidelines for Americans have been published jointly every 5 years since 1980 by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). The guidelines provide authoritative advice for those aged 2 years and older on how good dietary habits can promote health and reduce risk for major chronic diseases. They serve as the basis for federal nutrition assistance and nutrition education programs.

Discretionary calories: The balance of calories, mainly from solid fat and added sugars, remaining in a child’s energy allowance after meeting nutritional requirements from the intake of foods low in fat or with no added sugar.

Dyslipidemia: A condition characterized by abnormal lipid and lipoprotein levels in the blood.

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