Index

5-4-3-2-1 Go! campaign, 128

A

Access to affordable healthy foods, 6, 12-13, 23-24, 27-28, 85, 101-106, 159

Adiposity in children

defined, 157

predictors of, 44

prenatal factors, 50

screen time and, 6, 122

sleep restriction and, 138

television advertising exposure and, 6, 122, 125

African Americans/blacks, 19, 87, 124

American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), 10, 11, 35, 39, 73, 86, 87, 94, 97, 120, 124

American Dietetic Association, 10, 73

Americans with Disabilities Act, 9, 61, 67

Animal Trackers intervention, 65

Arizona, child care standards, 30

Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), 45, 48

B

Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI), 11, 86, 88, 89, 90, 157

Behavioral mapping, 68-69

Birth weight, 48-49, 51, 160

Bisphenol A, 153

Body mass index (BMI)

calculation, 35, 38, 39

CDC gender-specific charts, 37, 39-42

defined, 157

monitoring, 8, 35-36, 37, 38, 39-42

obesity definition, 41, 160

overweight definition, 40-42, 160

parental, 44, 45, 48, 49

phthalates in blood and, 154

prepregnancy, 48, 49, 50

rationale for monitoring, 42-44

screen time and, 123, 124-125

sleep habits and, 137-138

WHO growth charts, 39

Z-score, 138, 157

Bottle feeding, 90-92

Breastfeeding

AAP recommendations, 11

Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative, 11, 86, 88, 89, 90, 157

barriers to, 87-88

bottle feeding breast milk, 90-92

child care center support of, 11, 90, 91

complementary solid foods, 12, 21, 87, 92-98



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Index 5-4-3-2-1 Go! campaign, 128 Behavioral mapping, 68-69 Birth weight, 48-49, 51, 160 Bisphenol A, 153 A Body mass index (BMI) calculation, 35, 38, 39 Access to affordable healthy foods, 6, 12-13, 23-24, CDC gender-specific charts, 37, 39-42 27-28, 85, 101-106, 159 defined, 157 Adiposity in children monitoring, 8, 35-36, 37, 38, 39-42 defined, 157 obesity definition, 41, 160 predictors of, 44 overweight definition, 40-42, 160 prenatal factors, 50 parental, 44, 45, 48, 49 screen time and, 6, 122 phthalates in blood and, 154 sleep restriction and, 138 prepregnancy, 48, 49, 50 television advertising exposure and, 6, 122, 125 rationale for monitoring, 42-44 African Americans/blacks, 19, 87, 124 screen time and, 123, 124-125 American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), 10, 11, 35, sleep habits and, 137-138 39, 73, 86, 87, 94, 97, 120, 124 WHO growth charts, 39 American Dietetic Association, 10, 73 Z-score, 138, 157 Americans with Disabilities Act, 9, 61, 67 Bottle feeding, 90-92 Animal Trackers intervention, 65 Breastfeeding Arizona, child care standards, 30 AAP recommendations, 11 Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative, 11, 86, 88, 89, (ALSPAC), 45, 48 90, 157 barriers to, 87-88 B bottle feeding breast milk, 90-92 child care center support of, 11, 90, 91 Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI), 11, 86, 88, complementary solid foods, 12, 21, 87, 92-98 89, 90, 157 183

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duration, 87, 89 staff development/training, 10, 67, 72-76, 107 nutrition support of, 87, 90 strollers, swings, and bouncer seats/chairs, 70 obesity risk reduction, 5, 87 Childcare Mealtime and Active Play Partnerships peer support, 90, 160-161 (ChildcareMAPP), 102 prevalence, 87 Children with disabilities, physical activity, 5, 9, 61, promoting and supporting, 11, 86-88, 89, 90, 157 67, 69-70, 74 race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status and, 87, 88 Collaborative Perinatal Project, 47-48 rationale for recommendations, 87-90 Consumer Product Safety Commission, 68 recommendations, 11, 86 state laws, 88-89 D Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Support Breastfeeding, 87-88 DDT, 154 Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding, 89, 91 Delaware, child care standards, 30, 71, 74, 101 worksite policies, 11, 28, 87, 88-89, 90 Diet of U.S. children (see also Breastfeeding; Eating Built environment for physical activity, 5, 9, 23, 27, behavior; Healthy eating; Infant formula) 61, 62-63, 65-70 added sugar, salt, and fat, 21, 85, 93, 94, 96-97 CACFP meal patterns, 93 calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods, 27, 122, 138, C 158 C-reactive protein, 48, 138 dairy products, 19, 37, 85, 91, 94, 96-97, 105, Cadmium, 154 159, 162 Calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods, 27, 122, 138, 158 fruits and vegetables, 19, 21, 27, 85, 93, 94-96, Carbamates, 153 104, 105, 106, 126, 159 Cardiovascular disease, 45, 48, 94 sugar-sweetened beverages, 19, 91, 96-97, 158, 162 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 1, whole grains, 37, 85, 94-95, 96, 105, 159 14, 19, 43, 87, 125 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA), 6, 12, 60, BMI gender-specific charts, 37, 39-42 93, 94, 97, 98, 158 growth charts, 8, 35, 36, 38, 39, 42 Dietary guidelines for children under 2 years, 6, 12, screen time recommendations, 123 97-98 Task Force on Community Preventive Services, Diethylstilbestrol, 153 123 Dyslipidemia, 94, 158 VERB campaign, 127-128 Dystocia, 50, 159 Charge to committee, 17-18 Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP), 5-6, E 11, 13, 30, 87, 93, 94, 95, 101, 103-105, 107 Child care settings (see also Standards for child care) Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised Breastfeeding Friendly, 11, 90, 91 (ECERS-R), 72 crib, car seat, and high chair use, 70 Early Head Start, 11, 87, 90, 101, 160 decreasing sedentary behavior, 9-10, 70-72 Eating behavior (see also Diet of U.S. children; healthy eating, 5-6, 11, 23, 93, 101, 103, 107 Healthy eating) home-based vs. center-based, 122 development of food preferences, 85-86, 93, 96, 97, in low-income neighborhoods, 27-28 99, 119, 121, 122, 125, 128 physical activity, 5, 8-9, 29, 61, 65-66, 70 marketing/advertising and, 119, 121, 122, 125, 128 quality of, 72 rewards or bribes and, 99 screen time in, 13, 29-30, 72, 121, 122 self-regulation, 6, 12, 98, 99, 100, 101 sleep in, 6-7, 15, 136 Electronic medical records, 39 Index 184

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Emergency Food Assistance Program, 104 parental weight status and, 8, 37, 42, 44 Endocrine-disrupting agents, 153-154 rate of weight gain, 8, 19, 37, 42, 43 Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation rationale for recommendations, 38-44 instrument, 72 recommendations, 5, 8, 38, 42 Environmental risk factors (see Eating behavior; training of health care providers, 35, 42 Sedentary behavior; Sleep) underdiagnosis of obesity, 42 Ethnic/racial differences weight-for-length or -height, 8, 19, 36, 37, 39, 40, breastfeeding, 87, 88 42, 43-44, 138, 140, 142 obesity/overweight, 19, 20 well-child visits, 5, 8, 35, 37, 38, 39, 45 physical activity, 69 WHO charts, 8, 35, 36, 38-40, 42 screen time, 124 sleep duration and environment, 124, 135 H Evaluation of policies (see also Research on obesity prevention), 7, 24-25 Head Start (see also Early Head Start), 26, 65 Evidence on obesity prevention, 24-25 Health care providers counseling parents/caregivers, 13, 14, 107, 121, 123-124 F growth monitoring, 4, 5, 8, 35-44, 45 Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, 88 perceptions of competence to treat obesity, 42-43 Family and Medical Leave Act, 89 training, 10, 35, 42, 67, 72-76, 107, 121 Farmers’ Market Nutrition Program, 104 Healthy eating (see also Breastfeeding; Diet of U.S. Federal Communications Commission, 11, 86 children; Eating behavior) Federal Trade Commission, 14, 121, 125 access to affordable healthy foods, 6, 12-13, 23-24, Feeding cues, 12, 92, 98, 99, 100 27-28, 85, 101-106, 159 First Steps for Mommy and Me, 142 adults eating with children, 98, 99, 100, 101 Food and Drug Administration, 14, 125 CACFP standards, 5-6, 11, 13, 30, 87, 93, 94, 95, Food insecurity, 103, 159 101, 103-105, 107 Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program, 104 child care settings, 5-6, 11, 23, 93, 101, 103, Fruit juices, 97 107 communicating with parents, 102, 107 dietary guidelines for children under 2 years, 6, 12, G 97-98 discretionary calories, 94, 96, 97, 158 Gender differences, 19 drinking water, 11, 19, 93, 97 Gestational diabetes, 46, 49-51 family-style service, 12, 98, 100, 101, 107 Green Carts initiative, 105, 106 feeding cues, 12, 92, 98, 99, 100 “Growing out of it,” 1, 19 fruit juice, 97 Growth monitoring goals, 85 at-risk children, 36, 39 government role, 6, 103 BMI calculations, 8, 35-36, 37, 38, 39-42 home settings, 6, 12, 28 CDC charts, 8, 35, 36, 38, 39, 42 infants, 98, 101 CDC updated guidelines, 38-44 information and educational resources, 102 discussions with parents, 35, 37, 44 low-income urban neighborhoods, 105-106 electronic medical records and, 39 nutrition assistance programs and, 12-13, 87, 90, goal, 35 103 by health care providers, 4, 5, 8, 35-44 plates and utensils, 100 misperceptions of excess weight, 1, 19, 37-38 185 Index

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rationale for recommendations, 94-97, 98, 99, 101, obesity in, 62 103-106, 107 physical activity, 5, 8-9, 60, 61-63, 70-71, 74-75 recommendations, 2, 5-6, 11-13, 93, 97, 98, 101, physical environment for, 62-63 107 plagiocephaly, 71 responsive feeding, 6, 12, 21-22, 85, 98-101, 102, preterm, 44, 48 161 rate of weight gain, 43 self-regulation, 6, 12, 98, 99, 100, 101, 107 responsive feeding, 12, 101 standards, 30, 101 restrictive equipment, limiting use of, 70, 74-75 toddlers and preschoolers, 98 screen time, 120 training professionals, 13, 107 SIDS, 71 Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010, 29 sleep, 71, 137, 140 Healthy People 2020, 29, 123 soothing techniques, 140 High-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels, 48 standards for child care, 101 Hispanics/Latinos, 19, 20, 87, 124 stroller, swing, and bouncer seat/chair use, 70-71 Home settings taste preferences, 96, 97 healthy eating, 6, 12, 28 “tummy time,” 8, 61, 62 low-income families, 28 Interagency Working Group on Food Marketed to screen time, 14, 15, 120, 122, 124 Children, 125 sleep, 6, 14, 15, 120, 124 Home visitation programs, 11, 22, 75, 87, 90, 140, K 160-161 Kaiser Family Foundation, 120 I L Implementation of policies cultural competency, 23, 127 Lead, 154 interaction with parents, 22-23 Leptin levels, 48, 138 parent role in, 23 Low-income neighborhoods training of providers, 27 access to healthy foods, 27-28 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, 74 Infant formula M bottle-feeding guidelines, 90-92 WHO International Code of Marketing of Breast Marketing/advertising (see also Social marketing Milk Substitute, 11, 86 campaigns) Infants (see also Breastfeeding) and adiposity, 6, 122, 125 adult interactions, 61, 62, 63 and eating behavior, 119, 121, 122, 125, 128 birth weight, 48-49, 51, 160 expenditures for food marketing, 121 bottle-feeding guidelines, 12, 90-92 exposure levels of young children, 121 complementary solid foods, 12, 21, 87, 92-98 goals, 119 cow’s milk, 91 infant formula, 11, 86 crib, car seat, and high chair use, 70-71 recommendations, 14, 125, 126 defined, 159 self-regulatory advertising initiative, 122 feeding cues, 12, 91, 92, 98 unhealthy foods and beverages, 4, 14, 27, 122, 125 gross motor development, 62 voluntary standards, 120, 125 healthy eating, 98, 101 Massachusetts, child care regulation, 30 holding vs. propping bottles, 12, 91, 101 Milk, flavored, 96-97 Index 186

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N misperceptions of excess weight, 37-38 physical activity, 75-76 National Association for Sport and Physical Parental weight status Education, 74 BMI, 44, 45, 48, 49 National Association for the Education of Young and childrearing practices, 46 Children, 74 and growth monitoring, 8, 37, 42, 44 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and obesity risk, 8, 37, 42 (see also Prenatal (NHANES), 19, 154 influences) National Health and Safety Performance Standards, 68 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 47 88 National Resource Center for Health and Safety in PCBs, 153-154 Child Care and Early Education, 30 Phthalates, 153, 154 National School Lunch Program, 29, 104 Physical activity National Sleep Foundation, 137, 158 active play, 21, 67-68, 102, 157 New York City Department of Health and Mental adult interactions, 61 Hygiene, 106 Animal Trackers intervention, 65 North Carolina, child care regulation, 30 behavioral mapping, 68-69 Nutrition assistance programs, 4 (see also specific built environment and, 5, 9, 23, 27, 61, 62-63, programs) 65-70 breastfeeding support, 87, 90 in child care settings, 5, 8-9, 29, 61, 65-66, 70 and child care licensing, 29 children with disabilities, 5, 9, 61, 67, 69-70, 74 funding, 103 circuit training and endurance activities, 65 and healthy eating, 12-13, 87, 90, 103 and cognitive development, 67 interagency coordination, 29 communication with parents about, 5, 10, 73, maximizing participation, 12-13, 103 75-76 defined, 161 environmental interventions, 65-66 O evidence base, 60, 67, 70 Obesity family-based interventions, 64-65 chronic diseases associated with, 94 goals, 59 defined, 40, 160 Healthy People 2020 objectives, 29, 123 and gut microflora, 154 infants, 5, 8-9, 60, 61-63, 70-71, 74-75 racial/ethnic differences, 19, 20 information and resources on, 74 Obesogenic environment, 160 light levels of, 9, 61, 63-64, 65-66, 68-69, 159 Organophosphates, 153 in low-income neighborhoods, 27-28 Overweight measurement of, 63-64 chronic diseases associated with, 94 moderate levels of, 9, 29, 61, 63, 64, 65-66, 67, defined, 39, 40-42, 160 68-69, 73-74, 160 “growing out of it,” 1, 19 and motor development, 62, 63 racial/ethnic differences, 19, 20 “move and learn” activity curriculum, 65 neighborhood and community venues, 68-69 outdoor activities, 5, 8, 9, 61, 62, 65, 66-67, 68, P 69-70, 75, 76 parental role, 75-76 Parent and family roles, 3-4, 13, 23 (see also Home Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, 60, 63 settings) potential actions, 61 advocacy, 75-76 187 Index

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Public Playground Safety Handbook, 68 for counseling parents and caregivers, 6-7, 10, 13, and punishment, 61 72-73, 107, 121 racial/ethnic differences, 69 defined, 161 rationale for, 61-70, 73-76 degree programs, 73, 107 recommendations, 2, 5, 8-9, 60-61, 67 in healthy eating, 13, 107 screen time and, 123 rationale for recommendations, 73-76 social marketing campaign, 127-128 regulatory requirements, 73 standards for child care, 29, 60-61, 64, 68, 70, 71 staff development in child care settings, 107 structured, 9, 61, 65, 74, 162 Public Playground Safety Handbook, 68 toddlers and preschoolers, 9, 61, 63-64, 75 training health and education professionals, 10, 67, Q 72-76 Quality Rating and Improvement System (QRIS), 28, 29 trends, 21, 59, 64 unstructured, 9, 61, 66, 162 vigorous levels of, 9, 29, 61, 63, 64, 65-66, 67, R 68-69, 73-74, 162 and weight gain, 59, 60, 63, 67, 70 Rational for prevention in early childhood, 20-21 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, 60, 63 Recommendations Plagiocephaly, 71 breastfeeding, 11, 86 Polyfluoroalkyls, 154 context for, 4-7, 27-28 Preeclampsia, 51-52 decreasing sedentary behavior, 9-10, 70 Prenatal influences, 4-5 formulation approach, 2, 26-28, 149-151 adiposity in children, 50 growth monitoring, 5, 8, 38-44 chemicals, drugs, and microorganisms, 24, 47, healthy eating, 2, 5-6, 11-13, 93, 97, 98, 101, 107 153-154 implemention strategies, 2-3 diet and exercise interventions, 49, 50 marketing standards, 14, 125 gestational diabetes, 46, 49-51 physical activity, 2, 5, 8-9, 60-61, 67 gestational weight gain, 45, 46, 47-49, 51 revising, 7 intergenerational cycle, 46 screen time for 2- to 5-year-olds, 6, 13-14, 120, 124 maternal BMI, 48, 49, 50 sleep duration, 15, 136 metabolic consequences of maternal weight, 46-47, social marketing prevention campaigns, 14, 126 50, 51 training professionals to counsel parents/caregivers, potential interventions, 47 10, 13, 15, 72-73, 107 prepregnancy weight, 24, 45-47, 48, 51 Reconciliation Act of 2010, 88 research challenges, 48, 49, 51 Regulation of child care (see Standards for chld care) smoking, 45, 51-52, 153 Research on obesity prevention Prevalence barriers, 25 gestational diabetes, 50 Responsive feeding, 6, 12, 21-22, 85, 98-101, 102, 161 obesity/overweight in young adults, 138 Risk of later obesity, 19-20, 43-44, 45, 47-48 obesity/overweight in young children, 1, 19, 20, 43-44, 63, 140 S prepregnancy overweight, 46 Professional training School Breakfast Program, 104 and activity levels of children, 73-74 Screen time certification and continuing education from AAP guidelines, 120, 123-124 national organizations, 73 and adiposity and obesity, 6, 19-20, 119, 122, 123, 124-125 Index 188

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in bedrooms and sleep areas, 14, 15, 120, 124 environment for, 6, 15, 136 and BMI, 123, 124-125 epidemiologic evidence, 135-136 in child care settings, 13, 29-30, 72, 121, 122 goal, 135 and cognitive development, 124 interventions, 140-142 coordination between parents and caregivers, 13, and neurocognitive functioning, 139 121, 122 parental behavior and, 139 counseling parents/caregivers, 13, 121, 124 and physical activity, 137 defined, 123, 162 poor sleep hygiene, 139, 161 exposure trends, 21, 119, 120, 122 position for infants, 71 goals, 119 racial/ethnic differences, 124, 135 Healthy People 2020 objectives, 123 recommendations, 15, 136 at home, 14, 15, 120, 122, 124 and screen time, 137 and physical activity, 123 self-regulation by young children, 15, 136, 142 race/ethnicity and, 124 training professionals to counsel parents/caregivers, rationale for recommendations, 121-124 15, 136-137 recommendations, 6, 13-14, 120, 124 trends in young children, 6-7, 21, 135 research challenges, 120 and weight status, 138 and sleep duration, 137 Sleeping and Intake Methods Taught to Infants and standards, 29-30 Mothers Early in Life (SLIMTIME), 140-141 television advertising, 6, 119-120, 121, 122, 125 Smoking, maternal, 45, 51-52, 153 training professionals to counsel parents/caregivers, Social marketing campaigns 13, 121 5-4-3-2-1 Go!, 128 and weight gain, 72 coordination with health care providers and Sedentary behavior (see also Physical activity) community service agencies, 128 electronic media use and, 72, 75 core messages, 127 interventions, 10, 70, 72 costs, 127-128 measurement of, 71-72 defined, 126 quality of child care center and, 72 examples of successful programs, 126, 127-128 rational for recommendations, 70-72 format of information, 128 recommendations, 9-10, 70 goals, 6, 120 standards for child care, 29-30, 70 key elements, 126 Self-regulation by young children parents as targets, 128 caloric intake, 6, 12, 98, 99, 100, 101, 107 recommendations, 14, 126 sleep, 15, 136, 142 VERB, 127-128 Sleep Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, and adiposity, 138 Infants, and Children (see WIC program) adverse health outcomes of deficits, 135-136, Standards for child care 137-138 accreditation of programs, 28-29 and BMI, 137-138 fostering adoption of, 28-29 in child care settings, 6-7, 15, 136 healthy eating, 30, 101 circadian misalignment, 138-139 incentives for adoption of state voluntary counseling parents and caregivers on, 6-7, 15, 142 standards, 29 daytime napping, 15, 136, 138 infants, 101 developmentally appropriate durations, 137, 158 mandatory regulation, 29-30 disturbances and disorders, 135, 139 nutrition program funding and, 29 and eating behavior and diet, 138 outdoor play areas, 68, 70 189 Index

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outreach campaigns, 28 University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, physical activity, 29, 60-61, 64, 68, 70, 71 102 Quality Rating and Improvement System, 28, 29 University of Idaho, 102 screen time, 29-30 U.S. Department of Agriculture sleep duration, 136 child care nutrition standards, 29, 94 time spent in confining equipment, 71 Cooperative Extension programs, 22 training for providers, 73 dietary guidelines for children under 2, 12, 97, 158 Statement of task, 2, 3, 4, 18 information and educational resources, 102 Study approach and marketing standards, 14, 125 evidence gathering and assessment, 24-26 nutrition assistance programs, 13, 22, 75, 103, 104 exploring child care standards, 28-30 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services formulating recommendations, 2, 26-28 (HHS), 11, 12, 23, 29, 86, 97, 126, 158 Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), 71 Sugar-sweetened beverages, 19, 96, 97, 158, 162 V Summer Food Service Program, 104 Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, 13, 103, VERB campaign, 127-128 104 Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Support W Breastfeeding, 87-88 Surgeon General’s Vision for a Healthy and Fit Washington, DC, child care regulation, 30 Nation, 60 Washington State University, 102 Weight-for-length or -height, 8, 19, 36, 37, 39, 40, 42, 43-44, 138, 140, 142 T Weight gain Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding, 89, 91 gestational, 45, 46, 47-49, 51 Tennessee, child care regulation, 30, 101 monitoring, 8, 19, 37, 42, 43 Texas, child care regulation, 30 and neurocognitive outcomes, 44 Toddlers/preschoolers (see also Healthy eating) and obesity risk, 44 defined, 161, 162 preterm infants, 44 hunger and fullness cues, 98-101 rate in children, 8, 19, 35, 37, 42, 43-44 physical activity, 9, 61, 63-64, 75 sugar-sweetened beverages and, 96 sedentary behavior, limiting, 70 WIC program, 11, 13, 22, 26, 36, 37, 75, 87, 90, 103, sleep duration, 137 104, 160 stroller use, 70 Workplace breastfeeding policies, 11, 28, 87, 88-89, Training (see Professional training) 90 Type 2 diabetes, 46, 50, 94, 96 World Health Organization (WHO) Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative, 11, 86, 88, 89, 90, 157 U growth charts, 8, 35, 36, 38-39, 42 Underweight, defined, 40 International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), 89, 157 Substitute, 11, 86 Index 190