For infants, potential actions include

  • providing daily opportunities for infants to move freely under adult supervision to explore their indoor and outdoor environments;
  • engaging with infants on the ground each day to optimize adult-infant interactions; and
  • providing daily “tummy time” (time in the prone position) for infants less than 6 months of age.

For toddlers and preschool children, potential actions include

  • providing opportunities for light, moderate, and vigorous physical activity for at least 15 minutes per hour while children are in care;
  • providing daily outdoor time for physical activity when possible;
  • providing a combination of developmentally appropriate structured and unstructured physical activity experiences;
  • joining children in physical activity;
  • integrating physical activity into activities designed to promote children’s cognitive and social development;
  • providing an outdoor environment with a variety of portable play equipment, a secure perimeter, some shade, natural elements, an open grassy area, varying surfaces and terrain, and adequate space per child;
  • providing an indoor environment with a variety of portable play equipment and adequate space per child;
  • providing opportunities for children with disabilities to be physically active, including equipment that meets the current standards for accessible design under the Americans with Disabilities Act;
  • avoiding punishing children for being physically active; and
  • avoiding withholding physical activity as punishment.


With adequate supervision and a secure perimeter, infants should be provided time each day to move freely and explore their surroundings. Physical activity may facilitate the achievement of gross motor milestones (Slining et al., 2010) and provides opportunities to expend energy (Li et al., 1995; Wells et al., 1996a,b). Research examining physical activity in infants is scarce, and even defining physical activity for infants is challenging. Thus, based on limited information, promot-

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