ASSESSING THE REQUIREMENTS FOR

SUSTAINED OCEAN COLOR
RESEARCH AND OPERATIONS

Committee on Assessing Requirements for Sustained Ocean Color Research and Operations

Ocean Studies Board
Division on Earth and Life Studies

Space Studies Board
Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
                          OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

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Committee on Assessing Requirements for Sustained Ocean Color Research and Operations Ocean Studies Board Division on Earth and Life Studies Space Studies Board Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under grant num - ber NNX09AP57G, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration under contract number DG133R08CQ0062, the National Science Foundation under grant number OCE-0948911, and the Office of Naval Research under contract number N00014-05-G-0288. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-21044-7 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-21044-5 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, D.C. 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2011 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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COMMITTEE ON ASSESSING REQUIREMENTS FOR SUSTAINED OCEAN COLOR RESEARCH AND OPERATIONS JAMES A. YODER (Chair), Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts DAVID ANTOINE, Marine Optics and Remote Sensing Lab, Laboratoire d’Océanographie de Villefranche, Villefranche-sur-Mer, Cedex, France CARLOS E. DEL CASTILLO,* Johns Hopkins University, Laurel, Maryland ROBERT H. EVANS, University of Miami, Florida CURTIS MOBLEY, Sequoia Scientific Inc., Bellevue, Washington JORGE L. SARMIENTO, Princeton University, New Jersey SHUBHA SATHYENDRANATH, Dalhousie University, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, Canada CARL F. SCHUELER, Orbital Sciences Corporation, Santa Barbara, California DAVID A. SIEGEL, University of California, Santa Barbara CARA WILSON, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Fisheries Service, Pacific Grove, California Staff CLAUDIA MENGELT, Senior Program Officer ARTHUR A. CHARO, Senior Program Officer HEATHER CHIARELLO, Senior Program Assistant JEREMY JUSTICE, Senior Program Assistant EMILY OLIVER, Program Assistant * Resigned from the committee to take a position with NASA. v

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OCEAN STUDIES BOARD DONALD F. BOESCH (Chair), University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science EDWARD A. BOYLE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology CORTIS K. COOPER, Chevron Corporation, California JORGE E. CORREDOR, University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez KEITH R. CRIDDLE, University of Alaska, Fairbanks JODY W. DEMING, University of Washington ROBERT HALLBERG, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and Princeton University, New Jersey DEBRA HERNANDEZ, Hernandez and Company, South Carolina ROBERT A. HOLMAN, Oregon State University KIHO KIM, American University, Washington, D.C. BARBARA A. KNUTH, Cornell University, New York ROBERT A. LAWSON, Science Applications International Corporation, California GEORGE I. MATSUMOTO, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, California JAY S. PEARLMAN, The Boeing Company (Retired), Washington ANDREW A. ROSENBERG, Conservation International, Virginia DANIEL L. RUDNICK, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, California ANNE M. TREHU, Oregon State University PETER L. TYACK, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts DON WALSH, International Maritime Incorporated, Oregon DAWN J. WRIGHT, Oregon State University JAMES A. YODER, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts OSB Staff SUSAN ROBERTS, Director DEBORAH GLICKSON, Senior Program Officer CLAUDIA MENGELT, Senior Program Officer KIM WADDELL, Senior Program Officer MARTHA MCCONNELL, Program Officer SHUBHA BANSKOTA, Financial Associate PAMELA LEWIS, Administrative Coordinator SHERRIE FORREST, Associate Program Officer HEATHER CHIARELLO, Senior Program Assistant LAUREN HARDING, Program Assistant vi

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SPACE STUDIES BOARD CHARLES F. KENNEL (Chair), Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California, San Diego JOHN KLINEBERG (Vice Chair), Space Systems/Loral, California (Retired) MARK R. ABBOTT, Oregon State University STEVEN J. BATTEL, Battel Engineering, Arizona YVONNE C. BRILL, Aerospace Consultant, New Jersey ELIZABETH R. CANTWELL, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, California ANDREW B. CHRISTENSEN, Dixie State College/Aerospace Corporation, California ALAN DRESSLER, The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution, California JACK D. FELLOWS, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, Colorado HEIDI B. HAMMEL, AURA, Connecticut FIONA A. HARRISON, California Institute of Technology ANTHONY C. JANETOS, University of Maryland JOAN JOHNSON-FREESE, Naval War College, Rhode Island ROBERT P. LIN, University of California, Berkeley MOLLY K. MACAULEY, Resources for the Future, Washington, DC JOHN F. MUSTARD, Brown University, Rhode Island ROBERT T. PAPPALARDO, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology JAMES PAWELCZYK, Pennsylvania State University MARCIA J. RIEKE, University of Arizona SOROOSH SOROOSHIAN, University of California, Irvine, Earth Science and Applications DAVID N. SPERGEL, Princeton University, New Jersey JOAN VERNIKOS, Thirdage LLC, Virginia WARREN M. WASHINGTON, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Colorado CLIFFORD M. WILL, Washington University CHARLES E. WOODWARD, University of Minnesota THOMAS H. ZURBUCHEN, University of Michigan SSB Staff MICHAEL MOLONEY, Board Director* JOSEPH K. ALEXANDER, Senior Program Officer TERRI BAKER, Senior Program Assistant CARMELA J. CHAMBERLAIN, Administrative Coordinator* ARTHUR A. CHARO, Senior Program Officer SANDRA J. GRAHAM, Senior Program Officer LEWIS GROSWALD, Research Associate CATHERINE A. GRUBER, Editor, SSB* RODNEY N. HOWARD, Senior Project Assistant CELESTE A. NAYLOR, Information Management Associate* TANJA E. PILZAK, Manager, Program Operations* IAN W. PRYKE, Senior Program Officer ROBERT L. RIEMER, Senior Program Officer* ABIGAIL SHEFFER, Associate Program Officer CHRISTINA O. SHIPMAN, Financial Officer* DAVID H. SMITH, Senior Program Officer LINDA WALKER, Senior Project Assistant SANDRA WILSON, Financial Assistant* DIONNA WILLIAMS, Program Associate * Staff of another NRC Board who are shared with the SSB. vii

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Preface O cean biology and biogeochemistry entered a new Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) era with the launch of the National Aeronautics and platforms was to provide ocean color observations beyond Space Administration’s (NASA) Coastal Zone Color MODIS, particularly for operational users. However, many Scanner (CZCS) in 1978. For the first time, maps of phy- ocean color users felt isolated from the planning for VIIRS toplankton biomass (chlorophyll)—a key measurement of and were unimpressed with the technical specifications marine ecosystems—could be produced from space observa- and proposed mission operations. Many, if not most, users tions with the potential for daily to interannual observations did not believe VIIRS could sustain the SeaWiFS/MODIS- at ocean basin scales. Led by scientists based at NASA- Aqua time-series for quantitative observations. Meanwhile, Goddard Space Flight Center and supported by academic SeaWiFS, both MODIS instruments, and the European partners at the University of Miami and around the world, Space Agency’s Medium-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer the capability to process and distribute the data developed (MERIS) instrument were beyond their design lifetime. This rapidly. As a result, the numbers of applications and users was the environment during which the committee began its also grew quickly. By the time the Sea-viewing Wide Field- task in 2010 to assess the “continuity of satellite ocean color of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) launched in 1997, regional to data and associated climate research products . . . at signifi- global maps of phytoplankton chlorophyll and other products cant risk for the U.S. ocean color community.” derived from satellite measurements of water-leaving radi- The committee met with experts in and out of govern- ance (ocean color) were accessible to users all over the world ment and hosted a community workshop to get opinions on and had become an essential measurement for the study and VIIRS and non-U.S. options for future satellite ocean color analysis of ocean biogeochemistry and ocean ecosystems. measurements for U.S. users. The committee considered sen- M oderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer sor specifications, mission operation scenarios, calibration ( MODIS)-Terra launched in 1999 and MODIS-Aqua and validation plans (or lack thereof), data exchange poli- launched in 2002; the latter was a follow-on to SeaWiFS. cies and related issues. Our task was complicated owing to Both had nominal ocean color capabilities, although process- major developments in ocean color remote sensing in 2010, ing Terra data for quantitative ocean color measurements which included: the NPOESS program was significantly proved to be an almost insurmountable challenge with only restructured to become the Joint Polar Satellite System modest recent success. The increase in the number of inter- (JPSS); a team from the National Institute of Standards and national users and the increase in applications, however, did Technology (NIST) characterized the VIIRS sensor with not lead to a clear path forward to sustain a quantitative time- unanticipated positive results; NASA announced the Pre- series of satellite ocean color observations by U.S. sensors Aerosol-Clouds-Ecosystem (PACE) mission, which included beyond MODIS. International partners, such as the Japanese an advanced ocean color instrument for launch in 2019; and European Space Agency (ESA), also launched sensors, and SeaWiFS stopped operating. With the exception of the but some were short-lived, others were not suitable for global demise of SeaWiFS, all of these were positive developments observations, and others had initial challenges to support and strongly influenced our report and its conclusions. Most data distribution for the international user community. In recently (April 2011) Congress finally approved the U.S. the United States, the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer government’s FY11 budget, which included significant cuts Suite (VIIRS) instrument for the National Polar-orbiting to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA’s) satellite programs in comparison to the President’s FY11 budget submission. The implication of these cuts for ix

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x PREFACE VIIRS on NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) and JPSS-1 Finally, I am most grateful to the National Research are not known to the committee. Council (NRC) staff—Study Director, Claudia Mengelt; Many individuals from NASA, NOAA, private industry, Senior Program Assistant, Jeremy Justice; Program Assis- and academia attended the open sessions of our meetings tant, Emily Oliver; Senior Program Assistant, Heather and contributed essential information. In particular, many Chiarello; and Ocean Studies Board Director, Susan Roberts of these individuals helped the committee understand very for all of the time and effort they dedicated to the completion technical issues as well as the complex organizational issues of this report. associated with the restructuring of NPOESS. I am also grateful to the committee members who worked so well Jim Yode, Chair together and were able to come to consensus on all of the Committee on Assessing Requirements for important issues. Sustained Ocean Color Research and Operations

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Acknowledgment of Reviewers T his report was greatly enhanced by the participants of process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their the meetings held as part of this study. The committee participation in their review of this report: would first like to acknowledge the efforts of those WILLIAM M. BALCH, Bigelow Laboratory for who gave presentations at meetings: Steve Ackleson (ONR), Bob Arnone (NRL), Paula Bontempi (NASA), Emmanuel Ocean Sciences, Boothbay Harbor, Maine MICHAEL BEHRENFELD, Oregon State University, Boss (University of Maine), Tony Busalacchi (University of Maryland), Curt Davis (OSU), Paul DiGiacomo (NOAA), Corvallis OTIS BROWN, Cooperative Institute for Climate and James Gleason (NASA), Bruce Guenther (NOAA), Carol J ohnson (NIST), Henri Laur (ESA), Charles McClain Satellites, North Carolina JANET CAMPBELL, University of New Hampshire, ( NASA), Hiroshi Murakami (JAXA), Steve Murawski (NOAA), Fred Pratt (GSF), Peter Regner (ESA), Karen Dover CURTISS DAVIS, Oregon State University, Corvallis St. Germaine (NOAA), Phil Taylor (NSF), Kevin Turpie HEIDI DIERSSEN, University of Connecticut, Avery (NASA), Menghua Wang (NOAA), Stan Wilson (NOAA), and Giuseppe Zibordi (Joint Research Centre, Ispra). These Point, Groton HOWARD GORDON, University of Miami, Florida talks helped set the stage for fruitful discussions in the closed ANDRE MOREL, Marine Optics and Remote Sensing sessions that followed. The committee is also grateful to a number of people who Lab, Villefranche-sur-mer, France provided important discussion, submitted white papers, and helped improve the quality of this report: Paul DiGiacomo Although the reviewers listed above have provided (NOAA), Carol Johnson (NIST),Charles McClain (NASA), many constructive comments and suggestions, they were Stan Wilson (NOAA), and Shelby Wood. n ot asked to endorse the conclusions or recommenda- This report has been reviewed in draft form by individu- tions nor did they see the final draft of the report before als chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical exper- its release. The review of this report was overseen by Francisco P. Chavez, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research tise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent I nstitute, appointed by the Divison on Earth and Life review is to provide candid and critical comments that will Studies, who was responsible for making certain that an assist the institution in making its published report as sound independent examination of this report was carried out in as possible and to ensure that this report meets institutional accordance with institutional procedures and that all review standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative committee and the institution. xi

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Contents SUMMARY 1 1 INTRODUCTION 8 Deriving Ocean Properties from Ocean Color Radiance, 8 Rationale for This Study, 10 The Study’s Task, 12 Report Roadmap, 12 2 SUSTAINING AND ADVANCING OCEAN COLOR RESEARCH AND OPERATIONS 14 Research and Societal Applications of Ocean Color Products, 14 Ocean Color Data Specifications in Support of Ocean Color Applications, 25 Conclusion, 27 3 LESSONS LEARNED FROM OCEAN COLOR SATELLITE MISSIONS AND ESSENTIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR FUTURE SUCCESS 28 The Coastal Zone Color Scanner: Proof of Concept, 28 Lessons from the SeaWiFS/MODIS Era, 29 Lessons from the European MERIS Mission, 30 Essential Requirements for Success, 31 Conclusion, 42 4 CAPABILITIES OF CURRENT AND PLANNED OCEAN COLOR SENSOR MISSIONS 46 Current and Planned Ocean Color Sensors, 46 Analysis of Capabilities and Gaps, 47 Ensuring Global High-Quality Ocean Color Data for the Next Two to Five Years, 48 Ensuring Global High-Quality Ocean Color Data for the Next Five to Ten Years, 54 Conclusion, 56 5 ADVANCING GLOBAL OCEAN COLOR REMOTE SENSING INTO THE FUTURE 58 Enhancements for the Future, 58 Sustaining Ocean Color Remote Sensing Over the Long Term, 64 Conclusion, 68 REFERENCES 70 xiii

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xiv CONTENTS APPENDIXES 79 A Past, Present, and Planned Sensors 87 B Vicarious Calibration 90 C Comprehensive Oceanic and Atmospheric Optical Datasets 94 D Commercial GEO-Satellite Hosted Remote Sensing 96 E Acronyms 98 F Committee and Staff Biographies