Pharmacological Society (1986), Fellow of the Academy of Medical Sciences (1999), Fellow of Academia Europeae (2001), William Withering Medal of the Royal College of Physicians (2003), Lifetime Achievement Award of the lnternational Society of lnflammation Associations (2005), and Bayliss-starling Prize Lecture of the Physiological Society (2006). He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 2003. Dr. Flower served on the NRC Committee for the lnternational Outreach Activities on Biosecurity: A Workshop on Building Bridges Between the Scientific and Policy Communities and also on the organizing committee for a 2006 Royal Society-lAP-ICSU workshop on developments in the life sciences and potential implications for the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention.

Hernan Chaimovich, Ph.D. is a professor in the Department of Biochemistry of the lnstitute of Chemistry, Universidade de Säo Paulo, Brazil, and superintendent general of the Butantan Foundation. He received a degree in biochemistry from the Universidad de Chile, worked with Osvaldo Cori in apyrase enzymology, and spent 2.5 years in the United States working under the supervision of C. A. Bunton (University of California, Santa Barbara) and F. H. Westheimer (Harvard University) in physical organic chemistry. He returned to Chile as an assistant professor of biochemistry and moved to Brazil in 1969, first as a FAPESP fellow in the Department of Physiology at the Faculty of Medicine, Universidade de São Paulo (USP) and later in the Department of Biochemistry of the lnstitute of Chemistry, USP, where he became a full professor in 1985. Dr. Chaimovich’s research is in interfacial effects on chemical and biological reactivity using micelles and vesicles as models. The contributions of his group, including theoretical and experimental studies of the effect of micelles and vesicles on a number of chemical reactions, have contributed to dissect the effect of these aggregates on chemical reactivity. Dr. Chaimovich is a co-chair of the lnterAmerican Network of Academies of Sciences (IANAS) and is a full member of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences and the Academy of Sciences of Latin America (ACAL). He is also a fellow of the Third World Academy of Sciences (TWAS) and of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), being a corresponding member of the Chilean Academy of Sciences. He has received several prizes, including the Grand-Cross of the National Order of Scientific and Technological Merit, the highest scientific distinction conceded by the Brazilian government. Dr. Chaimovich has also recently served as vice-president for external relations for the lnternational Council for Science (ICSU) and has encouraged its unions to become engaged in biosecurity issues.

Nancy D. Connell, Ph.D. is a professor of infectious disease at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (UMDNJ)-New Jersey Medi-



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