research in all fields of biochemistry and molecular biology is considered. Thousands of individual research projects are presented in poster sessions, and leading investigators from many nations survey their fields and describe their own research in symposia and plenary lectures. Since 1992 IUBMB has also sponsored IUBMB Conferences and Special Meetings, held in the years between the International Congresses. Further information is available online at http://www.iubmb.org.

The International Union of Microbiological Societies (IUMS) is one of the 29 Scientific Unions of the International Council for Science (ICSU). It was founded in 1927 as the International Society of Microbiology, and became the International Association of Microbiological Societies affiliated to the International Union of Biological Sciences (IUBS) as a division in 1967. It acquired independence in 1980 and became a Union Member of ICSU in 1982. IUMS currently has 113 member societies and 14 associate members representing more than 100 countries. Members are national societies and associations for microbiologists, and associate members are other institutions with an interest in microbiological and connected sciences. IUMS’s objectives are to promote the study of microbiological sciences internationally; initiate, facilitate, and coordinate research and other scientific activities that involve international cooperation; ensure the discussion and dissemination of the results of international conferences, symposia, and meetings and assist in the publication of their reports; represent microbiological sciences in ICSU; and maintain contact with other international organizations. Further information is available online at http://www.iums.org.

The Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) was founded in Beijing on November 1, 1949. As the nation’s highest academic institution in natural sciences, supreme scientific and technological advisory body, and national comprehensive research and development center in natural sciences and high technologies, it consists of the academic divisions and various subordinate institutions. It currently has 694 members. At present, there are six academic divisions, functioning as the national scientific think-tank, providing advisory and appraisal services on issues stemming from the national economy, social development, and science and technology progress. Today’s CAS has 12 branch offices, 117 institutes with legal entity, more than 100 national key laboratories and national engineering research centers, and about 1,000 field stations throughout the country. CAS has made a series of major scientific breakthroughs in basic and cutting-edge research, bio-medical sciences, strategic high-technology, and research on sustainable development, thus making important contributions to China’s economic development, social progress and national security. In 2009, the Science & Technology in China: A Roadmap to 2050 series outlined major



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