and Synthetic Biology at the University of Kerala, which organized the first synthetic biology conference in India and created a wiki to encourage information sharing among Indian laboratories engaged in synthetic biology research (Dhar, 2010).

Data from studies in the United States and the United Kingdom (Adams et al., 2007; NSB, 2010; Royal Society, 2011b) indicate that the number of international collaborations, as measured by jointly authored scientific papers, continues to increase; in 2008 more than one-third of scientific articles included authors from more than one country (Royal Society, 2011b). Although the absolute numbers of scientific papers remain highest for the United States and scientifically developed countries in Europe, countries such as China and India are experiencing particularly rapid growth in output. A recent report comparing the number and growth rate of collaboratively authored papers among a sample of six countries (United States, United Kingdom, France, Germany, China, and India) over two time periods—1996 to 2000 and 2001 to 2005 found that, in all cases, more jointly authored papers were released in 2001-2005 than in 1996-2000. Although there were higher total numbers of papers from the United States and European countries, the rate of increase in joint papers was highest for China and India (Adams et al., 2007). A recent analysis by the U.S. National Science Foundation similarly observed that U.S. and European Union researchers’ “combined world share of published articles decreased steadily from 69% in 1995 to 59% in 2008 as Asia’s output increased. In little more than a decade, Asia’s world article share expanded from 14% to 23%” (NSB, 2010). The additional observation that, as a general pattern, “collaboration usually creates an increase in the indexed bibliometric impact” of a journal article, such as through an increased number of citations (Adams et al., 2007), suggests that collaborative research is producing valuable science.

The workshop also highlighted that international S&T collaborations are occurring not only among researchers in scientifically developed countries and between researchers in developed and developing countries (sometimes referred to as North-South collaboration). The impressive growth of scientific capacity among countries once considered “developing” has enabled collaborations among regional networks and increasingly among scientists (South-South collaboration) (Hassan, 2007; Royal Society, 2011b; Sáenz et al., 2010; Thorsteinsdóttir et al., 2010; WHO, 2009). The growing numbers of such regional and South-South collaborations appear to be an important trend that is expected to continue (UNESCO, 2010).

Examples of effective international and regional collaborations presented at the workshop included multi-partner genomic sequencing efforts (de Villiers, 2010; Pitt, 2010b), the global Human Genome Organi-

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