jurisdictions) have developed separate and distinct strategies within their regulatory and nonregulatory programs to identify, quantify, and attempt to control point and nonpoint sources of nutrients. In addition, state and federal agencies fund wastewater infrastructure improvements through the federal Clean Water Act State Revolving Funds and other programs designed to improve land management and reduce nutrient and sediment pollution. Finally, there are voluntary efforts that are not cost-shared by any particular state or federal agency. Ideally, tracking and accounting in the Bay watershed would account for all of these activities consistently and accurately, without duplication, and in a centralized framework.
The Bay jurisdictions bear the primary responsibility for tracking nutrient and sediment control efforts and reporting them to the CBP. Through a variety of state and local agencies, each jurisdiction compiles information about the nutrient and sediment control practices implemented in the Bay watershed to address point and nonpoint sources of pollution. The CBP has approved more than 60 agricultural and urban best management practices (BMPs) for credit in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Model (see Appendix B) and has used a peer-review process to assign pollutant load-reduction effectiveness estimates to each BMP.
Any practice approved by the CBP and implemented since 1985 is included in the tracking and accounting of nutrient and sediment reduction strategies. In 1987, the CBP partners agreed to specific goals for pollution control (see Chapter 1), including a goal to reduce nitrogen and phosphorus discharges by 40 percent below 1985 levels by the year 2000. All nutrient reduction that has taken place since 1985 is, therefore, credited toward the achievement of those CBP goals and tracked in the Watershed Model.
All of the Bay jurisdictions report annually to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) data concerning compliance with National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits associated with point-source discharges, including for entities such as wastewater treatment plants and urban and suburban Municipal Separate Storm Sewer Systems (MS4s). All Bay jurisdictions have been delegated authority from the EPA to implement the NPDES program and, therefore, assume that regulatory responsibility. As part of that responsibility, the Bay jurisdictions check the quality and completeness of permit compliance and monitoring data in accordance with EPA-approved quality assurance plans and programmatic requirements before submitting the data to the CBP for incorporation into the Chesapeake Bay Model and tracking and accounting systems. Data from NPDES compliance monitoring are used in the tracking and accounting of significant wastewater treatment facilities. However, water quality monitoring is largely not part of the tracking and accounting process for nonpoint-source pollution control measures.