Agency (EPA) presented the intent to institute adaptive management as a way to enhance overall management of the CBP. The EPA concluded that the CBP possessed many essential components of adaptive management but “lacked a single set of strategies for achieving program goals, a comprehensive activity plan, and a framework to organize these parts into a cohesive whole.” In the CAP, the EPA proposed to fill these gaps by adopting a “five stage model of adaptive management” based on adaptation of the Kaplan and Norton (2008) closed-loop management system (Figure 4-1). This approach is intended to establish “strong relationships between strategy and operations” (EPA, 2008a) and foster “continual improvement of both Bay implementation activities and CBP’s organizational performance” (EPA, 2008a). “The cycle of active strategy development, planning, implementation, and evaluation is being applied to all areas of CBP activity, so that the organization itself, not only individual partners or partners engaged in on-the-ground implementation, will learn and change based on the outputs of the adaptive management process” (EPA, 2008a).

Adaptive management in the CBP is further emphasized in documents responding to President Obama’s 2009 Executive Order 13508. Specifically,


FIGURE 4-1 The Chesapeake Bay Program adaptation of the Kaplan and Norton closed loop management system.
SOURCE: EPA (2008a).

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