References

Abbadie, C., J. A. Lindia, A. M. Cumiskey, L. B. Peterson, J. S. Mudgett, E. K. Bayne, J. A. DeMartino, D. E. MacIntyre, and M. J. Forrest. 2003. Impaired neuropathic pain responses in mice lacking the chemokine receptor ccr2. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100(13):7947-7952.

Ablin, J. N., Y. Shoenfeld, and D. Buskila. 2006. Fibromyalgia, infection and vaccination: Two more parts in the etiological puzzle. Journal of Autoimmunity 27(3):145-152.

Adamek, B., A. Ksiaiek, A. Szczerba-Sachs, J. Kasperczyk, and A. Wiczkowski. 2006. Tick-borne diseases exposure of forestry workers and preventive methods usage. Przegl Epidemiology 60 (Suppl 1):11-15.

Adeyemi, E. O. A., K. D. Desai, M. Towsey, and D. Ghista. 1999. Characterization of autonomic dysfunction in patients with irritable bowel syndrome by means of heart rate variability studies. American Journal of Gastroenterology 94(3):816-823.

Adjemian, J. Z., J. Krebs, E. Mandel, and J. McQuiston. 2009. Spatial clustering by disease severity among reported Rocky Mountain spotted fever cases in the United States, 2001-2005.American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 80(1):72-77.

Aguero-Rosenfeld, M. E., G. Wang, I. Schwartz, and G. P. Wormser. 2005. Diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 18(3):484-509.

Ahantarig, A., W. Trinachartvanit, and J. R. Milne. 2008. Tick-borne pathogens and diseases of animals and humans in Thailand. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine & Public Health 39(6):1015-1032.

Akalin, H., S. Helvaci, and S. Gedikoglu. 2009. Re-emergence of tularemia in Turkey. International Journal of Infectious Diseases 13(5):547-551.

Akhtar, J. 2005. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever: An alert for health care workers. Jcpsp, Journal of the College of Physicians & Surgeons—Pakistan 15(12):751-752.

Akkoyunlu, M., and E. Fikrig. 2000. Gamma interferon dominates the murine cytokine response to the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis and helps to control the degree of early rickettsemia. Infection and Immunity 68:1827-1833.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 193
References Abbadie, C., J. A. Lindia, A. M. Cumiskey, L. B. Peterson, J. S. Mudgett, E. K. Bayne, J. A. DeMartino, D. E. MacIntyre, and M. J. Forrest. 2003. Impaired neuropathic pain re- sponses in mice lacking the chemokine receptor ccr2. Proceedings of the National Acad- emy of Sciences of the United States of America 100(13):7947-7952. Ablin, J. N., Y. Shoenfeld, and D. Buskila. 2006. Fibromyalgia, infection and vaccination: Two more parts in the etiological puzzle. Journal of Autoimmunity 27(3):145-152. Adamek, B., A. Ksiaiek, A. Szczerba-Sachs, J. Kasperczyk, and A. Wiczkowski. 2006. Tick- borne diseases exposure of forestry workers and preventive methods usage. Przegl Epi- demiology 60 (Suppl 1):11-15. Adeyemi, E. O. A., K. D. Desai, M. Towsey, and D. Ghista. 1999. Characterization of au- tonomic dysfunction in patients with irritable bowel syndrome by means of heart rate variability studies. American Journal of Gastroenterology 94(3):816-823. Adjemian, J. Z., J. Krebs, E. Mandel, and J. McQuiston. 2009. Spatial clustering by disease severity among reported Rocky Mountain spotted fever cases in the United States, 2001- 2005. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 80(1):72-77. Aguero-Rosenfeld, M. E., G. Wang, I. Schwartz, and G. P. Wormser. 2005. Diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 18(3):484-509. Ahantarig, A., W. Trinachartvanit, and J. R. Milne. 2008. Tick-borne pathogens and diseases of animals and humans in Thailand. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine & Public Health 39(6):1015-1032. Akalin, H., S. Helvaci, and S. Gedikoglu. 2009. Re-emergence of tularemia in Turkey. Inter- national Journal of Infectious Diseases 13(5):547-551. Akhtar, J. 2005. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever: An alert for health care workers. Jcpsp, Journal of the College of Physicians & Surgeons—Pakistan 15(12):751-752. Akkoyunlu, M., and E. Fikrig. 2000. Gamma interferon dominates the murine cytokine re- sponse to the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis and helps to control the degree of early rickettsemia. Infection and Immunity 68:1827-1833. 193

OCR for page 193
194 CRITICAL RESEARCH NEEDS IN TICK-BORNE DISEASES Alaedini, A., and B. A. Fallon. 2010. Effect of iv antibiotic therapy on antibody profilein patients with post-treatmentlyme encephalapothy. Paper presented at 135th Annual Meeting of the American Neurological Association (ANA), San Francisco, CA. Alexopoulou, L., V. Thomas, M. Schnare, Y. Lobet, J. Anguita, R. T. Schoen, R. Medzhitov, E. Fikrig, and R. A. Flavell. 2002. Hyporesponsiveness to vaccination with Borrelia burg- dorferi ospa in humans and in tlr1- and tlr2-deficient mice. Natural Medicine 8:878-884. Allan, B. F., F. Keesing, and R. S. Ostfeld. 2003. Effect of forest fragmentation on Lyme disease risk. Conservation Biology 17(1):267-272. Amar, S., Q. Zhou, Y. Shaik-Dasthagirisaheb, and S. Leeman. 2007. Diet-induced obesity in mice causes changes in immune responses and bone loss manifested by bacterial chal- lenge. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104:20466-20471. PMID: 18077329. PMCID: PMC2154454. Angelakis, E., S. A. Billeter, E. B. Breitschwerdt, B. B. Chomel, and D. Raoult. 2010. Potential for tick-borne bartonelloses. Emerging Infectious Diseases 16(3):385-391. Arnold, L. M., J. I. Hudson, E. V. Hess, A. E. Ware, D. A. Fritz, M. B. Auchenbach, L. O. Starck, and P. E. Keck. 2004. Family study of fibromyalgia. Arthritis and Rheumatism 50(3):944-952. Assous, M. V., and A. Wilamowski. 2009. Relapsing fever borreliosis in Eurasia—forgotten, but certainly not gone! Clinical Microbiology & Infection 15(5):407-414. Aucott, J., C. Morrison, B. Munoz, P. C. Rowe, A. Schwarzwalder, and S. K. West. 2009. Diagnostic challenges of early Lyme disease: Lessons from a community case series. Bmc Infectious Diseases 9. Bacon, R. M., B. J. Biggerstaff, M. E. Schriefer, R. D. Gilmore, M. T. Philipp, A. C. Steere, G. P. Wormser, A. R. Marques, and B. J. B. Johnson. 2003. Serodiagnosis of Lyme dis- ease by kinetic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using recombinant vlse1 or peptide antigens of Borrelia burgdorferi compared with 2-tiered testing using whole-cell lysates. Journal of Infectious Diseases 187(8):1187-1199. Bacon, R. M., K. J. Kugeler, and P. S. Mead. 2008. Surveillance for Lyme disease—United States, 1992-2006. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 57(SS10, Suppl. S):1-9. Bakken, J. S., J. S. Dumler, S. M. Chen, M. R. Eckman, L. L. Vanetta, and D. H. Walker. 1994. Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis in the upper midwest United-States—a new species emerging. Journal of the American Medical Association 272(3):212-218. Bakken, J. S., P. Goellner, M. Van Etten, D. Z. Boyle, O. L. Swonger, S. Mattson, J. Krueth, R. L. Tilden, K. Asanovich, J. Walls, and J. S. Dumler. 1998. Seroprevalence of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis among permanent residents of northwestern Wisconsin. Clinical Infectious Diseases 27(6):1491-1496. Baldridge, G. D., T. J. Kurtti, N. Burkhardt, A. S. Baldridge, C. M. Nelson, A. S. Oliva, and U. G. Munderloh. 2007. Infection of Ixodes scapularis ticks with rickettsia monacensis expressing green fluorescent protein: A model system. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 94(3):163-174. Ball, R., S. V. Shadomy, A. Meyer, B. T. Huber, M. S. Leffell, A. Zachary, M. Belotto, E. Hilton, M. E. Bryant-Genevier, F. W. Miller, and M. M. Braun. 2009. HLA type and immune response to Borrelia burgdorferi outer surface protein a in people in whom arthritis developed after Lyme disease vaccination. Arthritis and Rheumatism 60:1179-1186. Bankhead, T., and G. Chaconas. 2007. The role of vlse antigenic variation in the Lyme disease spirochete: Persistence through a mechanism that differs from other pathogens. Molecu- lar Biology 65(6):1547-1558. Baranton, G., D. Postic, I. Saint Girons, P. Boerlin, J.-C. Piffaretti, M. Assous, and P. A. D. Grimont. 1992. Delineation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii sp. Nov., and group vs461 associated with Lyme borreliosis. International Journal of Sys- tematic Bacteriology 42(3):378-383.

OCR for page 193
195 REFERENCES Barbara, G., and V. Stanghellini. 2009. Biomarkers in ibs: When will they replace symptoms for diagnosis and management? Gut 58(12):1571-1575. Barbet, A. F., P. F. Meeus, M. Belanger, M. V. Bowie, J. Yi, A. M. Lundgren, A. R. Alleman, S. J. Wong, F. K. Chu, U. G. Munderloh, and S. D. Jauron. 2003. Expression of multiple outer membrane protein sequence variants from a single genomic locus of anaplasma phagocytophilum. Infection and Immunity 71:1706-1718. Barbour, A. 2004. Specificity of borrelia-tick vector relationships. In Microbe-vector interac- tions in vector-borne diseases, edited by S. H. Gillespie, G. L. Smith and A. Osbourn. West Nyack, NY: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 75-90. Barthold, S. W., D. S. Beck, G. M. Hansen, G. A. Terwilliger, and K. D. Moody. 1990. Lyme borreliosis in selected strains and ages of laboratory mice. Journal of Infectious Diseases 162:133-138. Barthold, S. W., C. L. Sidman, and A. L. Smith. 1992. Lyme borreliosis in genetically resis- tant and susceptible mice with severe combined immunodeficiency. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 47:605-613. Barthold, S. W., E. Hodzic, S. Tunev, and S. L. Feng. 2006. Antibody-mediated disease remis- sion in the mouse model of Lyme borreliosis. Infection and Immunity 74(8):4817-4825. Barthold, S. W., D. Cadavid, and M. T. Philipp. 2010. Animal models of borreliosis. In Bor- relia: Molecular biology, host interaction and pathogenesis, edited by S. Samuels and J. Radolph. Norfolk, UK: Calister Academic Press. Batra, H. V. 2007. Spotted fevers & typhus fever in Tamil nadu. Indian Journal of Medical Research 126(2):101-103. Bayless, T. M., and M. L. Harris. 1990. Inflammatory bowel-disease and irritable bowel syn- drome. Medical Clinics of North America 74(1):21-28. Beall, M. J., R. Chandrashekar, M. D. Eberts, K. E. Cyr, P. P. V. P. Diniz, C. Mainville, B. C. Hegarty, J. M. Crawford, and E. B. Breitschwerdt. 2008. Serological and molecular prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi, anaplasma phagocytophilum, and ehrlichia species in dogs from Minnesota. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 8(4):455-464. Beattie, J. F., M. L. Michelson, and P. J. Holman. 2002. Acute babesiosis caused by babesia divergens in a resident of Kentucky. New England Journal of Medicine 347:697-698. Bechelli, J. R., E. Rydkina, P. M. Colonne, and S. K. Sahni. 2009. Rickettsia rickettsii infection protects human microvascular endothelial cells against staurosporine-induced apoptosis by a ciap(2)-independent mechanism. Journal of Infectious Diseases 199(9):1389-1398. Behera, A. K., E. Hildebrand, J. Scagliotti, A. C. Steere, and L. T. Hu. 2005. Induction of host matrix metalloproteinases by Borrelia burgdorferi differs in human and murine Lyme arthritis. Infection and Immunity 73:126-134. Behera, A. K., E. Hildebrand, R. T. Bronson, G. Perides, S. Uematsu, S. Akira, and L. T. Hu. 2006a. Myd88 deficiency results in tissue-specific changes in cytokine induction and inflammation in interleukin-18-independent mice infected with Borrelia burgdorferi. Infection and Immunity 74:1462-1470. Behera, A. K., E. Hildebrand, S. Uematsu, S. Akira, J. Coburn, and L. T. Hu. 2006b. Identi- fication of a TLR-independent pathway for borrelia burgdorferi-induced expression of matrix metalloproteinases and inflammatory mediators through binding to integrin alpha 3 beta 1. Journal of Immunology 177:657-664. Behera, A. K., E. Durand, C. Cugini, S. Antonara, L. Bourassa, E. Hildebrand, L. T. Hu, and J. Coburn. 2008. Borrelia burgdorferi bbb07 interaction with integrin alpha3beta1 stimulates production of pro-inflammatory mediators in primary human chondrocytes. Cell Microbiology 10:320-331. Bell, J. F., S. J. Stewart, and S. K. Wikel. 1979. Resistance to tick-borne francisella-tularensis by tick-sensitized rabbits—allergic klendusity. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 28(5):876-880.

OCR for page 193
196 CRITICAL RESEARCH NEEDS IN TICK-BORNE DISEASES Belongia, E. A., K. D. Reed, and P. D. Mitchell. 1999. Clinical and epidemiological features of early Lyme disease and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis in Wisconsin. Clinical Infectious Diseases 29:1472-1477. Benhnia, M. R., D. Wrobleski, M. N. Akhtar, R. A. Patel, W. Lavezzi, S. C. Gangloff, S. M. Goyert, M. N. Caimano, J. D. Radolf, and T. J. Sellati. 2005. Signaling through cd14 attenuates the inflammatory response to Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease. Journal of Immunology 174:1539-1548. Beugnet, F., and J.-L. Marie. 2009. Emerging arthropod-borne diseases of companion animals in Europe. Veterinary Parasitology 163(4):298-305. Bockenstedt, L. K., I. Kang, C. Chang, D. Persing, A. Hayday, and S. W. Barthold. 2001. CD4+ T helper 1 cells facilitate regression of murine Lyme carditis. Infection and Im- munity 69:5264-5269. Bockenstedt, L. K., J. Mao, E. Hodzic, S. W. Barthold, and D. Fish. 2002. Detection of at- tenuated, noninfectious spirochetes in Borrelia burgdorferi-infected mice after antibiotic treatment. Journal of Infectious Diseases 186:1430-1437. Bockenstedt, L. K., A. Belperron, D. Gonzalez, and A. Haberman. 2011. Persistent antigenic debris but not viable spirochetes after antibiotic therapy for murine Lyme borreliosis. Bolz, D. D., R. S. Sundsbak, Y. Ma, S. Akira, C. J. Kirschning, J. F. Zachary, J. H. Weis, and J. J. Weis. 2004. Myd88 plays a unique role in host defense but not arthritis development in Lyme disease. Journal of Immunology 173:2003-2010. Bourdoiseau, G. 2006. Canine babesiosis in France. Veterinary Parasitology 138(1-2):118-125. Bowman, D. D. 2006. Successful and currently ongoing parasite eradication programs. Vet- erinary Parasitology 139(4):293-307. Bowman, D., S. E. Little, L. Lorentzen, J. Shields, M. P. Sullivan, and E. P. Carlin. 2009. Preva- lence and geographic distribution of dirofilaria immitis, Borrelia burgdorferi, Ehrlichia canis, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in dogs in the United States: Results of a national clinic-based serologic survey. Veterinary Parasitology 160(1-2):138-148. Branda, J. A., M. E. Aguero-Rosenfeld, M. J. Ferraro, B. J. Johnson, G. P. Wormser, and A. C. Steere. 2010. 2-tiered antibody testing for early and late Lyme disease using only an immunoglobulin g blot with the addition of a vlse band as the second-tier test Clinical Infectious Diseases 50(1):20-26. Breitschwerdt, E. B., R. G. Maggi, W. L. Nicholson, N. A. Cherry, and C. W. Woods. 2008. Bartonella sp bacteremia in patients with neurological and neurocognitive dysfunction. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 46(9):2856-2861. Breitschwerdt, E. B., R. G. Maggi, B. B. Chomel, and M. R. Lappin. 2010a. Bartonellosis: An emerging infectious disease of zoonotic importance to animals and human beings. Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care 20(1):8-30. Breitschwerdt, E. B., R. G. Maggi, P. Farmer, and P. E. Mascarelli. 2010b. Molecular evidence of perinatal transmission of bartonella vinsonii subsp berkhoffii and bartonella henselae to a child. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 48(6):2289-2293. Breitschwerdt, E. B., R. G. Maggi, P. M. Lantos, C. W. Woods, B. C. Hegarty, and J. M. Bradley. 2010c. Bartonella vinsonii subsp berkhoffii and bartonella henselae bacteremia in a father and daughter with neurological disease. Parasites & Vectors 3. Brouqui, P., P. Parola, P. E. Fournier, and D. Raoult. 2007. Spotted fever rickettsioses in southern and eastern Europe. FEMS Immunology & Medical Microbiology 49(1):2-12. Brown, C. R., A. Y. Lai, S. T. Callen, V. A. Blaho, J. M. Hughes, and W. J. Mitchell. 2008. Adenoviral delivery of interleukin-10 fails to attenuate experimental Lyme disease. Infec- tion and Immunity 76:5500-5507. Brown, J. P., J. F. Zachary, C. Teuscher, J. J. Weis, and R. M. Wooten. 1999. Dual role of interleukin-10 in murine Lyme disease: Regulation of arthritis severity and host defense. Infection and Immunity 67:5142-5150.

OCR for page 193
197 REFERENCES Brown, W. C., D. P. Norimine, D. P. Knowles, and W. L. Goff. 2006. Immune control of babesia bovis infection. Veterinary Parasitology 138:2856-2861. Browne, B. J., B. Edwards, and R. L. Rogers. Dermatologic emergencies. Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice 33(3):685-695. Bruehl, S., C. R. Carlson, and J. A. McCubbin. 1993. 2 brief interventions for acute pain. Pain 54(1):29-36. Brunner, J. L., and R. S. Ostfeld. 2008. Multiple causes of variable tick burdens on small- mammal hosts. Ecology 89(8):2259-2272. Buckingham, S. C., G. S. Marshall, G. E. Schutze, C. R. Woods, M. A. Jackson, L. E. R. Patterson, and R. F. Jacobs. 2007. Clinical and laboratory features, hospital course, and outcome of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in children. Journal of Pediatrics 150(2): 180-184. Buskila, D., L. Neumann, G. Vaisberg, D. Alkalay, and F. Wolfe. 1997. Increased rates of fi- bromyalgia following cervical spine injury—A controlled study of 161 cases of traumatic injury. Arthritis and Rheumatism 40(3):446-452. Buskila, D., F. Atzeni, and P. Sarzi-Puttini. 2008. Etiology of fibromyalgia: The possible role of infection and vaccination. Autoimmunity Reviews 8(1):41-43. Butler, C. M., D. J. Houwers, F. Jongejan, and J. H. van der Kolk. 2005. Borrelia burgdorferi infections with special reference to horses. A review. Veterinary Quarterly 27(4):146-156. Cabello, F. C., H. P. Godfrey, and S. A. Newman. 2007. Hidden in plain sight: Borrelia burg- dorferi and the extracellular matrix. Trends in Microbiology 15(8):350-354. Cable, R. G., and D. A. Leiby. 2003. Risk and prevention of transfusion-transmitted babesiosis and other tick-borne diseases. Current Opinion in Hematology 10(6):405-411. Cain, K. C., M. E. Jarrett, R. L. Burr, V. L. Hertig, and M. M. Heitkemper. 2007. Heart rate variability is related to pain severity and predominant bowel pattern in women with ir- ritable bowel syndrome. Neurogastroenterology and Motility 19(2):110-118. Canica, M. M., F. Nato, L. Du Merle, C. Mazie, G. Baranton, and D. Postic. 1993. Mono- clonal antibodies for identification of Borrelia afzelii sp. Nov. Associated with late cu- taneous manifestation of Lyme borreliosis. Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases 25(4):441-448. Cerar, D., T. Cerar, E. Ruzic-Sabljic, G. P. Wormser, and F. Strle. 2010. Subjective symptoms after treatment of early Lyme disease. American Journal of Medicine 123(1):79-86. Chandra, A., G. P. Wormser, M. S. Klempner, R. P. Trevino, M. K. Crow, N. Latov, and A. Alaedini. 2010. Anti-neural antibody reactivity in patients with a history of Lyme bor- reliosis and persistent symptoms. Brain Behavior and Immunity 24(6):1018-1024. Chapman, A. S., J. S. Bakken, S. M. Folk, C. D. Paddock, K. C. Bloch, A. Krusell, D. J. Sexton, S. C. Buckingham, G. S. Marshall, G. A. Storch, G. A. Dasch, J. H. McQuiston, D. L. Swerdlow, S. J. Dumler, W. L. Nicholson, D. H. Walker, M. E. Eremeeva, and C. A. Ohl. 2006a. Diagnosis and management of tickborne rickettsial diseases: Rocky Mountain spotted fever, ehrlichioses, and anaplasmosis—United States: A practical guide for physi- cians and other health-care and public health professionals. MMWR Recommendations and Reports 55(RR-4):1-27. Chapman, A. S., S. M. Murphy, L. J. Demma, R. C. Holman, A. T. Curns, J. H. McQuiston, J. W. Krebs, and D. L. Swerdlow. 2006b. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in the United States, 1997-2002. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 6(2):170-178. Chen, S., J. S. Dumler, J. S. Baken, and D. Walker. 1994. Identification of granulocytic eh- rlichia species as the eitiologic agent of human disease. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 32:589-595. Chomel, B. B., R. W. Kasten, C. Williams, A. C. Wey, J. B. Henn, R. Maggi, S. Carrasco, J. Mazet, H. J. Boulouis, R. Maillard, and E. B. Breitschwerdt. 2009. Bartonella endo-

OCR for page 193
198 CRITICAL RESEARCH NEEDS IN TICK-BORNE DISEASES carditis: A pathology shared by animal reservoirs and patients. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1166:120-126. Chu, C.-Y., W. Liu, B.-G. Jiang, D.-M. Wang, W.-J. Jiang, Q.-M. Zhao, P.-H. Zhang, Z.-X. Wang, G.-P. Tang, H. Yang, and W.-C. Cao. 2008. Novel genospecies of Borrelia burg- dorferi sensu lato from rodents and ticks in southwestern China. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 46(9):3130-3133. Cisak, E., J. Sroka, J. Zwolinjski, and J. Chmielewska-Badora. 1999. Risk of tick-borne en- cephalitis (tbe) virus infection among people occupationally exposed to tick bites. Wiad Parazytology 45(3):375-380. Cisak, E., J. Chmielewska-Badora, J. Zwolinski, A. Wojcik-Fatla, J. Polak, and J. Dutkiewicz. 2005. Risk of tick-borne bacterial diseases among workers of Roztocze National Park (south-eastern Poland). Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine 12(1):127-132. Clark, R. P., and L. T. Hu. Prevention of Lyme disease and other tick-borne infections. Infec- tious Disease Clinics of North America 22(3):381-396. Clauw, D. J., and P. Katz. 1995. The overlap between fibromyalgia and inflammatory rheumatic disease: When and why does it occur? Journal of Clinical Rheumatology 1(6):335-342. Clauw, D. J., C. C. Engel, R. Aronowitz, E. Jones, H. M. Kipen, K. Kroenke, S. Ratzan, M. Sharpe, and S. Wessely. 2003. Unexplained symptoms after terrorism and war: An expert consensus statement. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 45(10):1040-1048. Coburn, J., J. R. Fischer, and J. M. Leong. 2005. Solving a sticky problem: New genetic ap- proaches to host cell adhesion by the Lyme disease spirochete. Molecular Microbiology 57:1182-1195. Coleman, J. L., J. A. Gebbia, J. Piesman, J. L. Degen, T. H. Bugge, and J. L. Benach. 1997. Plasminogen is required for efficient dissemination of B. burgdorferi in ticks and for enhancement of spirochetemia in mice. Cell Microbiology 89:1111-1119. Conlon, P. J., G. W. Procop, V. Fowler, M. A. Eloubeidi, S. R. Smith, and D. J. Sexton. 1996. Predictors of prognosis and risk of acute renal failure in patients with Rocky Mountain spotted fever. American Journal of Medicine 101(6):621-626. Connally, N. P., A. J. Durante, K. M. Yousey-Hindes, J. I. Meek, R. S. Nelson, and R. Heimer. 2009. Peridomestic Lyme disease prevention results of a population-based case-control study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 37(3):201-206. Connelly, M., F. J. Keefe, G. Affleck, M. A. Lumley, T. Anderson, and S. Waters. 2007. Ef- fects of day-to-day affect regulation on the pain experience of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Pain 131(1-2):162-170. Conrad, P. A., A. M. Kjemptrup, and R. A. Carreno. 2006. Description of babesia ducani n.Sp. (apicomplexa: Babesiidae) from humans and its differentiation from other piroplasms. International Journal for Parasitology 36:779-789. Coulter, P., C. Lema, D. Flayhart, A. S. Linhardt, J. N. Aucott, P. G. Auwaerter, and J. S. Dumler. 2005. Two-year evaluation of Borrelia burgdorferi culture and supplemen- tal tests for definitive diagnosis of Lyme disease. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 43(10):5080-5084. Coutte, L., D. J. Botkin, L. Gao, and S. J. Norris. 2009. Detailed analysis of sequence changes occurring during vlse antigenic variation in the mouse model of Borrelia burgdorferi infection. PLoS Pathogens 5(2):e1000293. Crandall, H., D. M. Dunn, Y. Ma, R. M. Wooten, J. F. Zachary, J. H. Weis, R. B. Weiss, and J. J. Weis. 2006. Gene expression profiling reveals unique pathways associated with dif- ferential severity of Lyme arthritis. Journal of Immunology 177:7930-7942. Crofford, L. J., E. A. Young, N. C. Engleberg, A. Korszun, C. B. Brucksch, L. A. McClure, M. B. Brown, and M. A. Demitrack. 2004. Basal circadian and pulsatile acth and cortisol

OCR for page 193
199 REFERENCES secretion in patients with fibromyalgia and/or chronic fatigue syndrome. Brain Behavior and Immunity 18(4):314-325. Crowder, C. D., H. E. Matthews, S. Schutzer, M. A. Rounds, B. J. Luft, O. Nolte, S. R. Campbell, C. A. Phillipson, F. Li, R. Sampath, D. J. Ecker, and M. W. Eshoo. 2010. Genotypic variation and mixtures of Lyme borrelia in ixodes ticks from North America and Europe. Plos One 5(5):e10650, 10651-10659. Dalton, M. J., M. J. Clarke, R. C. Holman, J. W. Krebs, D. B. Fishbein, J. G. Olson, and J. E. Childs. 1995. National surveillance for Rocky Mountain spotted fever, 1981-1992— epidemiologic summary and evaluation of risk-factors for fatal outcome. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 52(5):405-413. Daltroy, L. H., and C. Phillips. 2007. A controlled trial of a novel primary prevention pro- gram for Lyme disease and other tick-borne illnesses. Health Education & Behavior 34(3):531-542. Daniel, M., K. Zitek, V. Danielova, B. Kriz, J. Valter, and I. Kott. 2006. Risk assessment and prediction of Ixodes ricinus tick questing activity and human tick-borne encephalitis infection in space and time in the Czech Republic. International Journal of Medical Microbiology 296 (Suppl 40):41-47. Daniels, T. J., D. Fish, and I. Schwartz. 1993. Reduced abundance of Ixodes scapularis (acari: Ixodidae) and Lyme disease risk by deer exclusion. J Med Entomol 30(6):1043-1049. Dantzer, R., J. C. O’Connor, G. G. Freund, R. W. Johnson, and K. W. Kelley. 2008. From inflammation to sickness and depression: When the immune system subjugates the brain. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 9(1):46-57. De Silva, A. M., and E. Fikrig. 1995. Growth and migration of Borrelia burgdorferi in ixo- des ticks during blood feeding. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 53(4):397-404. de Waal, D. T., and M. P. Combrink. 2006. Live vaccines against bovine babesiosis. Veterinary Parasitology 138(1-2):88-96. Deblinger, R. D., and D. W. Rimmer. 1991. Efficacy of a permethrin-based acaricide to reduce the abundance of ixodes dammini (acari: Ixodidae). Journal of Medical Entomology 28(5):708-711. Deblinger, R. D., M. L. Wilson, D. W. Rimmer, and A. Spielman. 1993. Reduced abundance of immature ixodes-dammini (acari, ixodidae) following incremental removal of deer. Journal of Medical Entomology 30(1):144-150. Dedert, E. A., J. L. Studts, I. Weissbecker, P. G. Salmon, P. L. Banis, and S. E. Sephton. 2004. Religiosity may help preserve the cortisol rhythm in women with stress-related illness. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine 34(1):61-77. DelaPaz, R., A. Lignelli, K. M. Corbera, H. A. Sackeim, and B. A. Fallon. 2005. MR imaging in persistent Lyme encephalophathy. Paper presented at the X International Congress on Lyme Borreliosis, Vienna, Austria. Demma, L. J., M. E. Eremeeva, W. L. Nicholson, M. Traeger, D. Blau, C. D. Paddock, M. Levin, G. A. Dasch, J. E. Cheek, D. L. Swerdlow, and J. McQuiston. 2006. An out- break of Rocky Mountain spotted fever associated with a novel tick vector, rhipicephalus sanguineus, in Arizona, 2004: Preliminary report. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1078:342-343. Dessau, R. B., T. Ejlertsen, and J. Hilden. 2010. Simultaneous use of serum IgG and IgM for risk scoring of suspected early Lyme borreliosis: Graphical and bivariate analyses. Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et immunologica Scandinavica 118(4):313-323. Didierlaurent, A., J. Goulding, S. Patel, R. Snelgrove, L. Low, M. Bebien, T. Laurence, L. S. Van Rijt, B. N. Lambrecht, J. C. Sirard, and T. Hussell. 2008. Sustained desensitization

OCR for page 193
200 CRITICAL RESEARCH NEEDS IN TICK-BORNE DISEASES to bacterial toll-like receptor ligands after resolution of respiratory influenza infection. Journal of Experimental Medicine 205:323-329. Dietrich, F., T. Schmidgen, R. G. Maggi, D. Richter, F. R. Matuschka, R. Vonthein, E. B. Breitschwerdt, and V. A. J. Kempf. 2010. Prevalence of Bartonella henselae and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato DNA in Ixodes ricinus ticks in Europe. Applied and Environmen- tal Microbiology 76(5):1395-1398. Dolan, M. C., N. S. Zeidner, E. Gabitzsch, G. Dietrich, J. N. Borchert, R. M. Poche, and J. Piesman. 2008. Short report: A doxycycline hyclate rodent bait formulation for pro- phylaxis and treatment of tick-transmitted Borrelia burgdorferi. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 78(5):803-805. Donta, S. 1997. Tetracycline therapy of chronic Lyme disease. Clinical Infectious Diseases 25:52-56. Doudier, B., J. Olano, P. Parola, and P. Brouqui. 2010. Factors contributing to emer- gence of ehrlichia and anaplasma spp. As human pathogens. Veterinary Parasitology 167(2-4):149-154. Dresser, A. R., P. O. Hardy, and G. Chaconas. 2009. Investigation of the genes involved in antigenic switching at the vlse locus in Borrelia burgdorferi: An essential role for the ruvab branch migrase. PLoS Pathogens 5(12):e1000680. Dumler, J. S. 2005. Anaplasma and ehrlichia infection. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1063(1):361-373. Dumler, J. S., and J. S. Bakken. 1995. Ehrlichial diseases of humans: Emerging tick-borne infections. Clinical Infectious Diseases 20(5):1102-1110. Dumler, J. S., A. F. Barbet, C. P. J. Bekker, G. A. Dasch, G. H. Palmer, S. C. Ray, Y. Rikihisa, and F. R. Rurangirwa. 2001. Reorganization of genera in the families rickettsiaceae and anaplasmataceae in the order rickettsiales: Unification of some species of ehrlichia with anaplasma, cowdria with ehrlichia and ehrlichia with neorickettsia, descriptions of six new species combinations and designation of ehrlichia equi and ‘hge agent’ as subjective synonyms of Ehrlichia phagocytophila. International Journal of Systematic and Evolu- tionary Microbiology 51:2145-2165. Eikeland, R., Å. Mygland, K. Herlofson, and U. Ljøstad. 2011. European neuroborreliosis: Quality of life 30 months after treatment. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica 123(6). Elchos, B. N., and J. Goddard. 2003. Implications of presumptive fatal Rocky Mountain spotted fever in two dogs and their owner. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 223(10):1450-1452. Engin, A., S. Arslan, S. Kizildag, H. Ozturk, N. Elaldi, I. Dokmetas, and M. Bakir. 2010a. Toll- like receptor 8 and 9 polymorphisms in Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. Microbes and Infection 12(12-13):1071-1078. Engin, A., S. Ugurlu, E. Caglar, A. Y. Oztop, D. Inan, N. Elaldi, I. Dokmetas, and M. Bakir. 2010b. Serum levels of mannan-binding lectin in patients with Crimean-Congo hemor- rhagic fever. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 10(10):1037-1041. Fahrer, H., S. M. Vanderlinden, M. J. Sauvain, L. Gern, E. Zhioua, and A. Aeschlimann. 1991. The prevalence and incidence of clinical and asymptomatic Lyme borreliosis in a popula- tion at risk. Journal of Infectious Diseases 163(2):305-310. Fahrer, H., M. J. Sauvain, E. Zhioua, C. Van Hoecke, and L. E. Gern. 1998. Longterm survey (7 years) in a population at risk for Lyme borreliosis: What happens to the seropositive individuals? European Journal of Epidemiology 14(2):117-123. Fallon, B. A., and J. A. Nields. 1994. Lyme disease: A neuropsychiatric illness. The American Journal of Psychiatry 151(11):1571-1583. Fallon, B. A., J. G. Keilp, K. M. Corbera, E. Petkova, C. B. Britton, E. Dwyer, I. Slavov, J. Cheng, J. Dobkin, D. R. Nelson, and H. A. Sackeim. 2008. A randomized, placebo- controlled trial of repeated IV antibiotic therapy for Lyme encephalopathy. Neurology 70(13):992-1003.

OCR for page 193
201 REFERENCES Fallon, B. A., E. S. Levin, P. J. Schweitzer, and D. Hardesty. 2010. Inflammation and central nervous system Lyme disease. Neurobiology of Disease 37(3):534-541. FDA (Food and Drug Administration). 2008. Biological product and hematopoietic cell therapy/product (hct/p) deviation report—annual summary for fiscal year 2008 . h ttp://www.fda.gov/BiologicsBloodVaccines/SafetyAvailability/ReportaProblem/ BiologicalProductDeviations/ucm12. Feder, H. M., Jr., B. J. Johnson, S. O’Connell, E. D. Shapiro, A. C. Steere, and G. P. Wormser. 2007a. A critical appraisal of “chronic Lyme disease.” New England Journal of Medicine 357(14):1422-1430. Feder, H. M., Jr., B. J. Johnson, S. O’Connell, E. D. Shapiro, A. C. Steere, G. P. Wormser, W. A. Agger, H. Artsob, P. Auwaerter, J. S. Dumler, J. S. Bakken, L. K. Bockenstedt, J. Green, R. J. Dattwyler, J. Munoz, R. B. Nadelman, I. Schwartz, T. Draper, E. McSweegan, J. J. Halperin, M. S. Klempner, P. J. Krause, P. Mead, M. Morshed, R. Porwancher, J. D. Radolf, R. P. Smith, Jr., S. Sood, A. Weinstein, S. J. Wong, and L. Zemel. 2007b. A critical appraisal of “chronic Lyme disease.” New England Journal of Medicine 357(14):1422-1430. Feng, H. M., and D. H. Walker. 2004. Mechanisms of immunity to Ehrlichia muris: A model of monocytotropic ehrlichiosis. Infection and Immunity 72:966-971. Fish, D., and J. E. Childs. 2009. Community-based prevention of Lyme disease and other tick- borne diseases through topical application of acaricide to white-tailed deer: Background and rationale. Vector Borne & Zoonotic Diseases 9(4):357-364. Fletcher, M. A., X. R. Zeng, K. Maher, S. Levis, B. Hurwitz, M. Antoni, G. Broderick, and N. G. Klimas. 2010. Biomarkers in chronic fatigue syndrome: Evaluation of natural killer cell function and dipeptidyl peptidase IV/CD26. Plos One 5(5). Florin-Christensen, M., L. Schnittger, M. Dominguez, M. Mesplet, A. Rodriguez, L. Ferreri, G. Asenzo, S. Wilkowsky, M. Farber, I. Echaide, and C. Suarez. 2007. Search for babesia bovis vaccine candidates. Parassitologia 49 (Suppl 1):9-12. Fukunaga, M., A. Hamase, K. Okada, and M. Nakao. 1996. Borrelia tanukii sp. Nov. and Borrelia turdae sp. Nov. Found from ixodid ticks in Japan: Rapid species identification by 16s rna gene-targeted pcr analysis. Microbiology and Immunology 40(11):877-881. Ganta, R. R., M. J. Wilkerson, C. Cheng, A. M. Rokey, and S. K. Chapes. 2002. Persistent Ehrlichia chaffeensis infection occurs in the absence of functional major histocompat- ibility complex class II genes. Infection and Immunity 70:380-388 Gebbia, J. A., J. L. Coleman, and J. L. Benach. 2004. Selective induction of matrix metal- loproteinases by Borrelia burgdorferi via toll-like receptor 2 in monocytes. Journal of Infectious Diseases 189:113-119. Genchi, C. 2007. Human babesiosis, an emerging zoonosis. Parassitologia 49 (Suppl 1):29-31. Gerber, M. A., E. D. Shapiro, P. J. Krause, R. G. Cable, S. J. Badon, and R. W. Ryan. 1994. The risk of acquiring Lyme-disease or babesiosis from a blood-transfusion. Journal of Infectious Diseases 170(1):231-234. Ghosh, S., P. Azhahianambi, and J. de la Fuente. 2006. Control of ticks of ruminants, with special emphasis on livestock farming systems in India: Present and future possibilities for integrated control—a review. Experimental & Applied Acarology 40(1):49-66. Ginsberg, H. S. 1993. Transmission risk of Lyme-disease and implications for tick manage- ment. American Journal of Epidemiology 138(1):65-73. Ginsberg, H. S., K. E. Hyland, R. J. Hu, T. J. Daniels, and R. C. Falco. 1998. Tick population trends and forest type. Science 281(5375):349-350. Ginsberg, H. S., P. A. Buckley, M. G. Balmforth, E. Zhioua, S. Mitra, and F. G. Buckley. 2005. Reservoir competence of native North American birds for the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi. Journal of Medical Entomology 42(3):445-449.

OCR for page 193
202 CRITICAL RESEARCH NEEDS IN TICK-BORNE DISEASES Gockel, M., H. Lindholm, L. Niemisto, and H. Hurri. 2008. Perceived disability but not pain is connected with autonomic nervous function among patients with chronic low back pain. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine 40(5):355-358. Gomes-Solecki, M. J. C., L. Meirelles, J. Glass, and R. J. Dattwyler. 2007. Epitope length, genospecies dependency, and serum panel effect in the ir6 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi. Clinical and Vaccine Immunol- ogy 14(7):875-879. Gould, L. H., R. S. Nelson, K. S. Griffith, E. B. Hayes, J. Piesman, P. S. Mead, and M. L. Cartter. 2008. Knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding Lyme disease preven- tion among Connecticut residents, 1999-2004. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 8(6):769-776. Gracely, R. H., F. Petzke, J. M. Wolf, and D. J. Clauw. 2002. Functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence of augmented pain processing in fibromyalgia. Arthritis and Rheuma- tism 46(5):1333-1343. Granquist, E. G., S. Stuen, L. Crosby, A. M. Lundgren, A. R. Alleman, and A. F. Barbet. 2010. Variant-specific and diminishing immune responses towards the highly variable msp2(p44) outer membrane protein of anaplasma phagocytophilum during persistent infection in lambs. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 133:117-124. Gubernot, D. M., H. L. Nakhasi, P. A. Mied, D. M. Asher, J. S. Epstein, and S. Kumar. 2009. Transfusion-transmitted babesiosis in the United States: Summary of a workshop. Trans- fusion 49(12):2759-2771. Halperin, J. J., and M. P. Heyes. 1992. Neuroactive kynurenines in Lyme borreliosis. Neurol- ogy 42(1):43-50. Hassett, A. L., D. C. Radvanski, S. Buyske, S. V. Savage, and L. H. Sigal. 2009. Psychiatric comorbidity and other psychological factors in patients with “chronic Lyme disease.” American Journal of Medicine 122(9):843-850. Hatcher, J. C., P. D. Greenberg, J. Antique, and V. E. Jimenez-Lucho. 2001. Severe babesiosis in Long Island: Review of 34 cases and their complications. Clinical Infectious Diseases 32(8):1117-1125. Hattwick, M. A. W., H. Retailliau, R. J. O’Brien, M. Slutzker, R. E. Fontaine, and B. Hanson. 1978. Fatal Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Journal of the American Medical Association 240(14):1499-1503. Heim, C., U. Ehlert, J. P. Hanker, and D. H. Hellhammer. 1998. Abuse-related posttraumatic stress disorder and alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in women with chronic pelvic pain. Psychosomatic Medicine 60(3):309-318. Herwaldt, B. L., D. Persing, and E. A. Precigout. 1996. A fatal case of babesiosis in Missouri: Identification of another piroplasm that infects humans. Annals of Internal Medicine 124:643-650. Herwaldt, B. L., S. Caccio, and F. Gherlinzoni. 2003. Molecular characterization of a non- babesia divergens organism causing zoonotic babesiosis in Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases 9:942-948. Hickie, I., T. Davenport, D. Wakefield, U. Vollmer-Conna, B. Cameron, S. D. Vernon, W. C. Reeves, and A. Lloyd. 2006. Post-infective and chronic fatigue syndromes precipitated by viral and non-viral pathogens: Prospective cohort study. British Medical Journal 333(7568):575. Hildebrandt, A., K. P. Hunfeld, M. Baier, A. Krumbholz, S. Sachse, T. Lorenzen, M. Kiehntopf, H. J. Fricke, and E. Straube. 2007. First confirmed autochthonous case of human babesia microti infection in Europe. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases 26(8):595-601.

OCR for page 193
203 REFERENCES Hilton, E., J. DeVoti, J. L. Benach, M. L. Halluska, D. J. White, H. Paxton, and J. S. Dumler. 1999. Seroprevalence and seroconversion for tick-borne diseases in a high-risk popula- tion in the northeast United States. American Journal of Medicine 106(4):404-409. Hirschfeld, M., C. J. Kirschning, R. Schwandner, H. Wesche, J. H. Weis, R. M. Wooten, and J. J. Weis. 1999. Cutting edge: Inflammatory signaling by Borrelia burgdorferi lipopro- teins is mediated by toll-like receptor 2. Journal of Immunology 163:2382-2386. Hodzic, E., S. Feng, K. Holden, K. J. Freet, and S. W. Barthold. 2008. Persistence of Borrelia burgdorferi following antibiotic treatment in mice. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemo- therapy 52(5):1728-1736. Holman, R. C., C. D. Paddock, A. T. Curns, J. W. Krebs, J. H. McQuiston, and J. E. Childs. 2001. Analysis of risk factors for fatal Rocky Mountain spotted fever: Evidence for su- periority of tetracyclines for therapy. Journal of Infectious Diseases 184(11):1437-1444. Holman, R. C., J. H. McQuiston, D. L. Haberling, and J. E. Cheek. 2009. Increasing incidence of Rocky Mountain spotted fever among the American Indian population in the United States. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 80(4):601-605. Horan, J. J., and J. K. Dellinge. 1974. In vivo emotive imagery—preliminary test. Perceptual and Motor Skills 39(1):359-362. Ismail, N., L. Soong, J. W. McBride, G. Valbuena, J. P. Olano, H. M. Feng, and D. H. Walker. 2004. Overproduction of tnf-alpha by CD8(+) type 1 cells and down-regulation of ifn-gamma production by CD4(+) Th1 cells contribute to toxic shock–like syn- drome in an animal model of fatal monocytotropic ehrlichiosis. Journal of Immunology 172(3):1786-1800. Ismail, N., H. L. Stevenson, and D. H. Walker. 2006. Role of tumor necrosis factor alpha (tnf-alpha) and interleukin-10 in the pathogenesis of severe murine monocytotropic ehrlichiosis: Increased resistance of tnf receptor p55-and p75-deficient mice to fatal ehrlichial infection. Infection and Immunity 74(3):1846-1856. Ismail, N., E. C. Crossley, H. L. Stevenson, and D. H. Walker. 2007. Relative importance of T-cell subsets in monocytotropic ehrlichiosis: A novel effector mechanism involved in ehrlichia-induced immunopathology in murine ehrlichiosis. Infection and Immunity 75(9):4608-4620. Ismail, N., K. C. Bloch, and J. W. McBride. 2010. Human ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis. Clinics in Laboratory Medicine 30(1):261-292. Johnson, M., and H. M. Feder. 2010. Chronic Lyme disease: A survey of Connecticut primary care physicians. Journal of Pediatrics 157(6):1025-1029.e1022. Jones, C. G., R. S. Ostfeld, M. P. Richard, E. M. Schauber, and J. O. Wolff. 1998. Chain reactions linking acorns to gypsy moth outbreaks and Lyme disease risk. Science 279(5353):1023-1026. Jones, K. E., N. G. Patel, M. A. Levy, A. Storeygard, D. Balk, J. L. Gittleman, and P. Daszak. 2008. Global trends in emerging infectious diseases. Nature 451(7181):990-U994. Jordan, R. A., T. L. Schulze, and M. B. Jahn. 2007. Effects of reduced deer density on the abundance of Ixodes scapularis (acari: Ixodidae) and Lyme disease incidence in a north- ern New Jersey endemic area. Journal of Medical Entomology 44(5):752-757. Kalish, R. A., J. M. Leong, and A. C. Steere. 1993. Association of treatment-resistant chronic Lyme arthritis with HLA-dr4 and antibody reactivity to ospa and ospb of Borrelia- burgdorferi. Infection and Immunity 61(7):2774-2779. Kato, K., P. F. Sullivan, B. Evengard, and N. L. Pedersen. 2008. A population-based twin study of functional somatic syndromes. Psychological Medicine doi:10.1017/ S0033291708003784. Kaufman, W. R., and P. A. Nuttall. 1996. Amblyomma variegatum(acari: Ixodidae): Mech- anism and control of arbovirus secretion in tick saliva. Experimental Parasitology 82(3):316-323.

OCR for page 193
208 CRITICAL RESEARCH NEEDS IN TICK-BORNE DISEASES Morrison, T. B., Y. Ma, J. H. Weis, and J. J. Weis. 1999. Rapid and sensitive quantification of borrelia burgdorferi-infected mouse tissues by continuous fluorescent monitoring of pcr. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 37:987-992. Munderloh, U. G., and T. J. Kurtti. 1995. Cellular and molecular interrelationships between ticks and prokaryotic tick-borne pathogens. Annual Review of Entomology 40:221-243. Mygland, A., U. Ljostad, V. Fingerle, T. Rupprecht, E. Schmutzhard, and I. Steiner. 2010. Efns guidelines on the diagnosis and management of European Lyme neuroborreliosis. European Journal of Neurology 1:8-16. Nau, R., H.-J. Christen, and H. Eiffert. 2009. Lyme disease—current state of knowledge. Deutsches Arzteblatt International 106(5):72-81; quiz 82. Niebylski, M. L., and M. G. Peacock. 1999. Lethal effect of Rickettsia rickettsii on its tick vector (dermacentor andersoni). Applied & Environmental Microbiology 65(2):773. Nigrovic, L. E., and S. L. Wingerter. Tularemia. Infectious Disease Clinics of North America 22(3):489-504. Norris, S. J., J. Coburn, J. M. Leong, L. T. Hu, and M. Höök. 2010. Pathobiology of Lyme disease borrelia. In Borrelia: Molecular biology, host interaction and pathogenesis, edited by D. S. Scott and J. D. Radolf. Hethersett, Norwich, UK: Caister Academic Press. Pp. 299-331. Nowakowski, J., R. B. Nadelman, R. Sell, D. McKenna, L. F. Cavaliere, D. Holmgren, A. Gaidici, and G. P. Wormser. 2003. Long-term follow-up of patients with culture-con- firmed Lyme disease. American Journal of Medicine 115(2):91-96. O’Garra, A., and K. M. Murphy. 2009. How pathogens and their products stimulate apcs to induce T (h) 1 development. Nature Immunology 10:929-932. Ogata, H., P. Renesto, S. Audic, C. Robert, G. Blanc, P. E. Fournier, H. Parinello, J. M. Claverie, and D. Raoult. 2005. The genome sequence of Rickettsia felis identifies the first putative conjugative plasmid in an obligate intracellular parasite. Plos Biology 3(8):1391-1402. Olano, J. R., E. Masters, W. Hogrefe, and D. H. Walker. 2003. Human monocytotropic eh- rlichiosis, Missouri. Emerging Infectious Diseases 9(12):1579-1586. Oliveira, A. M., R. G. Maggi, C. W. Woods, and E. B. Breitschwerdt. 2010. Suspected needle stick transmission of bartonella vinsonii subspecies berkhoffii to a veterinarian. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 24(5):1229-1232. Olson, S. H., and J. A. Patz. 2010. Global environmental change and tick-borne disease inci- dence. Paper presented at Institute of Medicine Committee on Lyme Disease and Other Tick-Borne Diseases: The State of the Science, Washington, DC. Olson, Jr., C. M., T. C. Bates, H. Izadi, J. D. Radolf, S. A. Huber, J. E. Boyson, and J. Anguita. 2009. Local production of ifn-gamma by invariant NKT cells modulates acute Lyme carditis. Journal of Immunology 182:3728-3734. One Health Initiative. One Health Initiative—One World One Medicine One Health. http:// www.onehealthinitiative.com/mission.php. Oosting, M., A. Berende, P. Sturm, H. J. Ter Hofstede, D. J. de Jong, T. D. Kanneganti, J. W. van der Meer, B. J. Kullberg, M. G. Netea, and L. A. Joosten. 2010. Recognition of Borrelia burgdorferi by nod2 is central for the induction of an inflammatory reaction. Journal of Infectious Diseases 201:1849-1858. Openshaw, J. J. 2010. Rocky mountain spotted fever in the United States, 2000-2007: Inter- preting contemporary increases in incidence (vol 83, pg 174, 2010). American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 83(3):729-730. Orloski, K. A., G. L. Campbell, C. A. Genese, J. W. Beckley, M. E. Schriefer, K. C. Spitalny, and D. T. Dennis. 1998. Emergence of Lyme disease in Hunterdon County, New Jersey, 1993: A case-control study of risk factors and evaluation of reporting patterns. American Journal of Epidemiology 147(4):391-397.

OCR for page 193
209 REFERENCES Ostfeld, R. S. 2009. Biodiversity loss and the rise of zoonotic pathogens. Clinical Microbiology & Infection 15 (Suppl 1):40-43. Ostfeld, R. S., C. G. Jones, and J. O. Wolff. 1996. Of mice and mast. Bioscience 46(5):323-330. Ostfeld, R. S., C. D. Canham, K. Oggenfuss, R. J. Winchcombe, and F. Keesing. 2006. Cli- mate, deer, rodents, and acorns as determinants of variation in Lyme-disease risk. Plos Biology 4:1058-1068. Paddock, C. D., and S. R. Telford III. 2010. Through a glass, darkly: The global incidence of tick-borne diseases. Paper presented at Institute of Medicine Committe on Lyme Disease and Other Tick-Borne Diseases: The State of the Science, Washington, DC. Paddock, C. D., and M. J. Yabsley. 2007. Ecological havoc, the rise of white-tailed deer, and the emergence of amblyomma americanum-associated zoonoses in the United States. Current Topics in Microbiology & Immunology 315:289-324. Palmer, G. H., F. R. Rurangirwa, K. M. Kocan, and W. C. Brown. 1999a. Molecular basis for vaccine development against the ehrlichial pathogen anaplasma marginale. Parasitology Today 15(7):281-286. Palmer, M. V., D. L. Whipple, and S. C. Olsen. 1999b. Development of a model of natural infection with mycobacterium bovis in white-tailed deer. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 35:450-457. Panda, A., F. Qian, S. Mohanty, D. Van Duin, F. K. Newman, L. Zhang, S. Chen, V. Towle, R. Belshe, and E. Fikrig. 2010. A generalized, age-associated defect in toll-like receptor function in primary human dendritic cells. Journal of Immunology 184:2518-2527. Persing, D. H., B. L. Herwaldt, C. Glaser, R. S. Lane, J. W. Thomford, D. Mathiesen, P. J. Krause, D. F. Phillip, and P. A. Conrad. 1995. Infection with a babesia-like organism in northern california. New England Journal of Medicine 332(5):298-303. Petzke, M. M., A. Brooks, M. A. Krupna, D. Mordue, and I. Schwartz. 2009. Recognition of Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease spirochete, by tlr7 and tlr9 induces a type I ifn response by human immune cells. Journal of Immunology 183:5279-5292. Phillips, C. B., M. H. Liang, O. Sangha, E. A. Wright, A. H. Fossel, R. A. Lew, K. K. Fossel, and N. A. Shadick. 2001. Lyme disease and preventive behaviors in residents of Nan- tucket Island, Massachusetts. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 20(3):219-224. Piesman, J., J. G. Donahue, T. N. Mather, and A. Spielman. 1986. Transovarially acquired Lyme-disease spirochetes (Borrelia-burgdorferi) in field-collected larval ixodes-dammini (acari, ixodidae). Journal of Medical Entomology 23(2):219-219. Porwancher, R., C. G. Hagerty, J. Fan, L. Landsberg, B. J. Johnson, M. Kopnitsky, A. C. Steere, K. Kulas, and S. J. Wong. 2011. Multiplex immunoassay for Lyme disease using vlse1- IgG and pepc10-IgM antibodies: Improving test performance through bioinformatics. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology doi:10.1128/CVI.00409-10. Postic, D., N. M. Ras, R. S. Lane, M. Hendson, and G. Baranton. 1998. Expanded diversity among californian borrelia isolates and description of Borrelia bissettii sp. Nov. (formerly borrelia group dn127). Journal of Clinical Microbiology 36(12):3497-3504. Qiu, W.-G., D. E. Dykhuizen, M. S. Acosta, and B. J. Luft. 2002. Geographic uniformity of the Lyme disease spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi) and its shared history with tick vector (Ixodes scapularis) in the northeastern United States. Genetics 160(3):833-849. Qiu, W. G., J. F. Bruno, W. D. McCaig, Y. Xu, I. Livey, M. E. Schriefer, and B. J. Luft. 2008. Wide distribution of a high-virulence Borrelia burgdorferi clone in Europe and North America. Emerging Infectious Diseases 14(7):1097-1104. Ramsey, A. H., E. A. Belongia, C. M. Gale, and J. P. Davis. 2002. Outcomes of treated human granulocytic ehrlichiosis cases. Emerging Infectious Diseases 8(4):398-401. Rand, P. W., C. Lubelczyk, G. R. Lavigne, S. Elias, M. S. Holman, E. H. Lacombe, and R. P. Smith, Jr. 2003. Deer density and the abundance of Ixodes scapularis (acari: Ixodidae). Journal of Medical Entomology 40(2):179-184.

OCR for page 193
210 CRITICAL RESEARCH NEEDS IN TICK-BORNE DISEASES Rand, P. W., C. Lubelczyk, M. S. Holman, E. H. Lacombe, and R. P. Smith. 2004. Abun- dance of Ixodes scapularis (acari : Ixodidae) after the complete removal of deer from an isolated offshore island, endemic for Lyme disease. Journal of Medical Entomology 41(4):779-784. Ribeiro, J. M., T. N. Mather, J. Piesman, and A. Spielman. 1987. Dissemination and salivary delivery of Lyme disease spirochetes in vector ticks (acari: Ixodidae). Journal of Medical Entomology 24(2):201-205. Ribeiro, J. M., F. Alarcon-Chaidez, I. M. Francischetti, B. J. Mans, T. N. Mather, J. G. Valenzuela, and S. K. Wikel. 2005. An annotated catalog of salivary gland transcripts from ixodes scapularis ticks. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 36(2):111-129. Richter, D., A. Spielman, N. Komar, and F. R. Matuschka. 2000. Competence of American robins as reservoir hosts for Lyme disease spirochetes. Emerging Infectious Diseases 6(2):133-138. Richter, D., D. Postic, N. Sertour, I. Livey, F.-R. Matuschka, and G. Baranton. 2006. Delin- eation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species by multilocus sequence analysis and confirmation of the delineation of Borrelia spielmanii sp. Nov. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 56(4):873-881. Rodgers, S. E., C. P. Zolnik, and T. N. Mather. 2007. Duration of exposure to suboptimal atmospheric moisture affects nymphal blacklegged tick survival. Journal of Medical Entomology 44:372-375. Rodriguez, S. D., M. A. Garcia Ortiz, R. Jimenez Ocampo, and C. A. Vega y Murguia. 2009. Molecular epidemiology of bovine anaplasmosis with a particular focus in Mexico. Infec- tion, Genetics & Evolution 9(6):1092-1101. Romero, J. R., and K. A. Simonsen. Powassan encephalitis and Colorado tick fever. Infectious Disease Clinics of North America 22(3):545-559. Rosa, P. A., K. Tilly, and P. E. Stewart. 2005. The burgeoning molecular genetics of the Lyme disease spirochaete. National Review of Microbiology 3:129-143. Rosner, F., M. H. Zarrabi, J. L. Benach, and G. S. Habicht. 1984. Babesiosis in splenectomized adults—review of 22 reported cases. American Journal of Medicine 76(4):696-701. Rovery, C., and D. Raoult. Mediterranean spotted fever. Infectious Disease Clinics of North America 22(3):515-530. Rudenko, N., M. Golovchenko, T. Lin, L. Gao, L. Grubhoffer, and J. H. Oliver, Jr. 2009. Delineation of a new species of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex, Borrelia americana sp. Nov. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 47(12):3875-3880. Ruderman, E. M., J. S. Kerr, S. R. Telford III, A. Spielman, L. H. Glimcher, and E. M. Gravellese. 1995. Early murine Lyme carditis has a macrophage predominance and is in- dependent of major histocompatibility complex class II-CD4+ T cell interactions. Journal of Infectious Diseases 171:362-370. Ruebush Ii, T. K., D. D. Juranek, and A. Spielman. 1981. Epidemiology of human ba- besiosis on Nantucket Island. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 30(5):937-941. Rupprecht, T. A., H. W. Pfister, B. Angele, S. Kastenbauer, B. Wilske, and U. Koedel. 2005. The chemokine cxcl13 (blc): A putative diagnostic marker for neuroborreliosis. Neurol- ogy 65(3):448-450. Rydkina, E., S. K. Sahni, L. A. Santucci, L. C. Turpin, R. B. Baggs, and D. J. Silverman. 2004. Selective modulation of antioxidant enzyme activities in host tissues during Rickettsia conorii infection. Microbiology and Pathology 36(6):293-301. Rydkina, E., L. C. Turpin, and S. K. Sahni. 2010. Rickettsia rickettsii infection of human mac- rovascular and microvascular endothelial cells reveals activation of both common and cell type-specific host response mechanisms. Infection and Immunity 78(6):2599-2606.

OCR for page 193
211 REFERENCES Sahni, S. K., D. J. Van Antwerp, M. E. Eremeeva, D. J. Silverman, V. J. Marder, and L. A. Sporn. 1998. Proteasome-independent activation of nuclear factor kappab in cytoplasmic extracts from human endothelial cells by Rickettsia rickettsii. Infection and Immunity 66(5):1827-1833. Saito, Y. A., P. Schoenfeld, and G. R. Locke. 2002. The epidemiology of irritable bowel syn- drome in North America: A systematic review. American Journal of Gastroenterology 97(8):1910-1915. Salgo, M. P., E. E. Telzak, B. Currie, D. C. Perlman, N. Litman, M. Levi, G. Nathenson, J. L. Benach, R. Alhafidh, and J. Casey. 1988. A focus of Rocky Mountain spotted fever within New York City. New England Journal of Medicine 318(21):1345-1348. Samuels, S. D., and J. D. Radolf. 2010. Borrelia: Molecular biology, host interaction, and pathogenesis. Norfolk, England: Caister Academic Press. Schroder, N. W. J., I. Diterich, A. Zinke, J. Eckert, C. Draing, V. von Baehr, D. Hassler, S. Priem, K. Hahn, K. S. Michelsen, T. Hartung, G. R. Burmester, U. B. Gobel, C. Hermann, and R. R. Schumann. 2005. Heterozygous arg753gln polymorphism of human TLR-2 impairs immune activation by Borrelia burgdorferi and protects from late stage Lyme disease. Journal of Immunology 175(4):2534-2540. Schroeder, H. W., and L. Cavacini. 2010. Structure and function of immunoglobulins. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 125(2):S41-S52. Schuijt, T. J., J. W. Hovius, T. van der Poll, A. P. van Dam, and E. Fikrig. 2011. Lyme borreli- osis vaccination: The facts, the challenge, the future. Trends in Parasitology 27:40-47. Schulze, T. L., R. A. Jordan, and R. W. Hung. 1995. Suppression of subadult Ixodes-scapularis (acari, ixodidae) following removal of leaf-litter. Journal of Medical Entomology 32(5):730-733. Schutze, G. E., and R. F. Jacobs. 1997. Human monocytic ehrlichiosis in children. Pediatrics 100(1):e10. Schwartz, B. S., and M. D. Goldstein. 1990. Lyme-disease in outdoor workers—risk-factors, preventive measures, and tick removal methods. American Journal of Epidemiology 131(5):877-885. Schwartz, B. S., M. D. Goldstein, and J. E. Childs. 1994. Longitudinal study of Borrelia- burgdorferi infection in New Jersey outdoor workers, 1988-1991. American Journal of Epidemiology 139(5):504-512. Scorpio, D. G., J. S. Dumler, N. C. Barat, J. A. Cook, C. E. Barat, B. A. Stillman, K. C. Debisceglie, M. J. Beall, and R. Chandrashekar. 2010. Comparative strain analysis of anaplasma phagocytophilum infection and clinical outcomes in a canine model of granu- locytic anaplasmosis. Vector Borne & Zoonotic Diseases 11(3):223-229. Seinost, G., D. E. Dykhuizen, R. J. Dattwyler, W. T. Golde, J. J. Dunn, I. N. Wang, G. P. Wormser, M. E. Schriefer, and B. J. Luft. 1999. Four clones of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto cause invasive infection in humans. Infection and Immunity 67(7):3518-3524. Sekirov, I., S. L. Russell, L. C. M. Antunes, and B. B. Finlay. 2010. Gut microbiota in health and disease. Physiology Review 90:859-904. Shadick, N. A., C. B. Phillips, E. L. Logigian, A. C. Steere, R. F. Kaplan, V. P. Berardi, P. H. Duray, M. G. Larson, E. A. Wright, K. S. Ginsburg, J. N. Katz, and M. H. Liang. 1994. The long-term clinical outcomes of Lyme disease. A population-based retrospective co- hort study. Annals of Internal Medicine 121(8):560-567. Shaw, A. C., A. Panda, S. Joshi, F. Qian, H. G. Allore, and R. R. Montgomery. 2010. Dysregu- lation of human toll-like receptor function in aging. Ageing Research Review. Sher, A. 1988. Vaccination against parasites: Special problems imposed by the adaptation of parasitic organisms to the host immune response. In The biology of parasitism, edited by P. T. Englund and A. Sher. New York: Alan R. Liss. Pp. 169-182.

OCR for page 193
212 CRITICAL RESEARCH NEEDS IN TICK-BORNE DISEASES Shih, C. M., L. P. Liu, W. C. Chung, S. J. Ong, and C. C. Wang. 1997. Human babesiosis in Taiwan: Asymptomatic infection with a babesia microti-like organism in a Taiwanese woman. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 35(2):450-454. Shin, O. S., R. R. Isberg, S. Akira, S. Uematsu, A. K. Behera, and L. T. Hu. 2008. Distinct roles for myd88 and toll-like receptors 2,5, and 9 in phagocytosis of Borrelia burgdorferi and cytokine induction. Infection and Immunity 76:2341-2351. Sigal, L. H., and S. Williams. 1997. A monoclonal antibody to Borrelia burgdorferi flagellin modifies neuroblastoma cell neuritogenesis in vitro: A possible role for autoimmunity in the neuropathy of Lyme disease. Infection and Immunity 65(5):1722-1728. Sillanpaa, H., P. Lahdenne, and H. Sarvas. 2007. Immune responses to borrelial vlse ir6 pep- tide variants. International Journal of Medicinal Microbiology 297:45-52. Silverman, D. J. 1984. Rickettsia rickettsii-induced cellular injury of human vascular endothe- lium in vitro. Infection and Immunity 44(3):545-553. Silverman, M. N., C. M. Heim, U. M. Nater, A. H. Marques, and E. M. Sternberg. 2010. Neuroendocrine and immune contributors to fatigue. PM & R : the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation 2(5):338-346. Smith, G., E. P. Wileyto, R. B. Hopkins, B. R. Cherry, and J. P. Maher. 2001. Risk factors for Lyme disease in Chester County, Pennsylvania. Public Health Reports 116:146-156. Smith, P. F., J. L. Benach, D. J. White, D. F. Stroup, and D. L. Morse. 1988. Occupational risk of Lyme disease in endemic areas of New York State. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 539:289-301. Smith, R. P., P. W. Rand, E. H. Lacombe, S. R. Morris, D. W. Holmes, and D. A. Caporale. 1996. Role of bird migration in the long-distance dispersal of Ixodes dammini, the vector of Lyme disease. Journal of Infectious Diseases 174(1):221-224. Smith, T., and F. L. Kilborne. 1893. Investigations into the nature, causation and prevention of Texas or southern cattle fever. Government Print Off, Bureau of Animal Industry Bulletin 1. Solomon, S. P., E. Hilton, B. S. Weinschel, S. Pollack, and E. Grolnick. 1998. Psychological fac- tors in the prediction of Lyme disease course. Arthritis Care and Research 11(5):419-426. Stafford, K. C. 1991. Effectiveness of host-targeted permethrin in the control of Ixodes dam- mini (acari: Ixodidae). Journal of Medical Entomology 28(5):611-617. Stafford, K. C., A. J. Denicola, and H. J. Kilpatrick. 2003. Reduced abundance of Ixodes scapularis (acari : Ixodidae) and the tick parasitoid Ixodiphagus hookeri (hymenop- tera : Encyrtidae) with reduction of white-tailed deer. Journal of Medical Entomology 40(5):642-652. Standaert, S. M., J. E. Dawson, W. Schaffner, J. E. Childs, K. L. Biggie, B. S. Singleton, R. R. Gerhardt, M. L. Knight, and R. H. Hutcheson. 1995. Ehrlichiosis in a golf-oriented retirement community. New England Journal of Medicine 333(7):420-425. Steere, A. C., and L. Glickstein. 2004. Elucidation of Lyme arthritis. Nature Reviews Micro- biology 4:143-152. Steere, A. C., and V. K. Sikand. 2003. The presenting manifestations of Lyme disease and the outcomes of treatment. New England Journal of Medicine 348(24):2472-2474. Steere, A. C., S. E. Malawista, and D. R. Snydman. 1977. Lyme arthritis: An epidemic of oligoarticular arthritis in children and adults in three Connecticut communities. Arthritis and Rheumatism 20(1):7-17. Steere, A. C., R. T. Schoen, and E. Taylor. 1987. The clinical evolution of Lyme arthritis. An- nals of Internal Medicine 107(5):725-731. Steere, A. C., E. Dwyer, and R. Winchester. 1990. Association of chronic Lyme arthritis with HLA-dr4 and HLA-dr2 alleles. New England Journal of Medicine 323(4):219-223. Steere, A. C., V. K. Sikand, F. Meurice, D. L. Parenti, E. Fikrig, R. T. Schoen, J. Nowakowski, C. H. Schmid, S. Laukamp, C. Buscarino, D. S. Krause, and G. Lyme Dis Vaccine Study.

OCR for page 193
213 REFERENCES 1998. Vaccination against Lyme disease with recombinant Borrelia burgdorferi outer- surface lipoprotein A with adjuvant. New England Journal of Medicine 339(4):209-215. Steere, A. C., D. Gross, A. L. Meyer, and B. T. Huber. 2001. Autoimmune mechanisms in antibiotic treatment-resistant Lyme arthritis. Journal of Autoimmunity 16:263-268. Steere, A. C., G. McHugh, C. Suarez, J. Hoitt, N. Damle, and V. K. Sikand. 2003. Prospec- tive study of coinfection in patients with erythema migrans. Clinical Infectious Diseases 36(8):1078-1081. Steere, A. C., G. McHugh, N. Damle, and V. K. Sikand. 2008. Prospective study of serologic tests for Lyme disease. Clinical Infectious Diseases 47(2):188-195. Stevenson, H. L., J. A. Jordan, Z. Peerwani, H. Q. Wang, D. H. Walker, and N. Ismail. 2006. An intradermal environment promotes a protective type-1 response against lethal sys- temic monocytotropic ehrlichial infection. Infection and Immunity 74(8):4856-4864. Stevenson, H. L., M. D. Estes, N. R. Thirumalapura, D. H. Walker, and N. Ismail. 2010. Natural killer cells promote tissue injury and systemic inflammatory responses dur- ing fatal ehrlichia-induced toxic shock–like syndrome. American Journal of Pathology 177(2):766-776. Stjernberg, L., and J. Berglund. 2005. Detecting ticks on light versus dark clothing. Scandina- vian Journal of Infectious Diseases 37(5):361-364. Stjernberg, L., K. Holmkvist, and J. Berglund. 2008. A newly detected tick-borne encephalitis (tbe) focus in south-east Sweden: A follow-up study of tbe virus (tbev) seroprevalence. Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases 40(1):4-10. Straubinger, R. K., B. A. Summers, Y. F. Chang, and M. J. Appel. 1997. Persistence of Borrelia burgdorferi in experimentally infected dogs after antibiotic treatment. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 35:111-116. Stricker, R. B., and E. E. Winger. 2001. Decreased cd57 lymphocyte subset in patients with chronic Lyme disease. Immunology Letters 76(1):43-48. ———. 2003. Musical hallucinations in patients with Lyme disease. Southern Medical Journal 96(7):711-715. Stricker, R. B., J. J. Burrascano, and E. E. Winger. 2002. Longterm decrease in the cd57 lymphocyte subset in a patient with chronic Lyme disease. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine 9(1):111-113. Sun, T., M. J. Tenenbaum, J. Greenspan, S. Teichberg, R. T. Wang, T. Degnan, and M. H. Kaplan. 1983. Morphologic and clinical observations in human infection with babesia- microti. Journal of Infectious Diseases 148(2):239-248. Sun, W., J. W. Ijdo, S. R. Telford III, E. Hodzic, Y. Zhang, S. W. Barthold, and E. Fikrig. 1997. Immunization against the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis in a murine model. Journal of Clinical Investigation 100:3014-3018. Suss, J. 2008. Tick-borne encephalitis in Europe and beyond—the epidemiological situation as of 2007. Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Europeen sur les Maladies Transmissibles = Eu- ropean Communicable Disease Bulletin 13(26):26. Suss, J., C. Klaus, F.-W. Gerstengarbe, and P. C. Werner. 2008. What makes ticks tick? Climate change, ticks, and tick-borne diseases. Journal of Travel Medicine 15(1):39-45. Swanson, S. J., D. Neitzel, K. D. Reed, and E. A. Belongia. 2006. Coinfections acquired from ixodes ticks. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 19(4):708-727. Sykes, J. E., L. L. Lindsay, R. G. Maggi, and E. B. Breitschwerdt. 2010. Human coinfection with bartonella henselae and two hemotropic mycoplasma variants resembling myco- plasma ovis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 48(10):3782-3785. Tektonidou, M. G., and M. M. Ward. 2010. Validity of clinical associations of biomarkers in translational research studies: The case of systemic autoimmune diseases. Arthritis Research & Therapy 12:R179.

OCR for page 193
214 CRITICAL RESEARCH NEEDS IN TICK-BORNE DISEASES Thabane, M., and J. K. Marshall. 2009. Post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome. World Journal of Gastroenterology 15(29):3591-3596. Tjernberg, I., M. Carlsson, J. Ernerudh, I. Eliasson, and P. Forsberg. 2010. Mapping of hor- mones and cortisol responses in patients after Lyme neuroborreliosis. Bmc Infectious Diseases 10. Tokarz, R., K. Jain, A. Bennett, T. Briese, and W. I. Lipkin. 2010. Assessment of polymi- crobial infections in ticks in New York State. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 10(3):217-221. Tonnetti, L., A. F. Eder, B. Dy, J. Kennedy, P. Pisciotto, R. J. Benjamin, and D. A. Leiby. 2009. Transfusion complications: Transfusion-transmitted babesia microti identified through hemovigilance. Transfusion 49(12):2557-2563. Tupin, E., M. R. Benhnia, Y. Kinjo, R. Patsey, C. J. Lena, M. C. Haller, M. J. Caimano, M. Imamura, C. H. Wong, S. Crotty, J. D. Radolf, T. J. Sellati, and M. Kronenberg. 2008. NKT cells prevent chronic joint inflammation after infection with Borrelia burg- dorferi. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105(50):19863-19868. U.S. Congress, House, 2009. Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, and Edu- cation, and Related Agencies Appropriations Bill, 2010. Report of the Committee in Appropriations together with Minority Views to accompany H.R. 3293. 111th Cong., 1st sess., pp. 81. Valbuena, G., and D. H. Walker. 2009. Infection of the endothelium by members of the order rickettsiales. Thromb Haemost 102(6):1071-1079. Vallings, R. 2010. A case of chronic fatigue syndrome triggered by influenza h1n1 (swine influenza). Journal of Clinical Pathology 63:184-185. Van Den Eede, F., G. Moorkens, B. Van Houdenhove, P. Cosyns, and S. J. Claes. 2007. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in chronic fatigue syndrome. Neuropsy- chobiology 55(2):112-120. van Duin, D., V. Thomas, S. Mohanty, R. R. Montgomery, S. Ginter, E. Fikrig, H. G. Allore, R. Medzhitov, and A. C. Shaw. 2007. Age-associated defect in human tlr1 function and expression. Journal of Immunology 178:970-975. Vannier, E., I. Borggraefe, S. R. Telford, S. Menon, T. Brauns, A. Spielman, J. A. Gelfand, and H. H. Wortis. 2004. Age-associated decline in resistance to Babesia microti is genetically determined. Journal of Infectious Diseases 189(9):1721-1728. Vannier, E., B. E. Gewurz, and P. J. Krause. 2008. Human babesiosis. Infectious Disease Clin- ics of North America 22(3):469-488. Vaughn, M. F., and S. R. Meshnick. 2011. Pilot study assessing the effectiveness of long-lasting permethrin-impregnated clothing for the prevention of tick bites. Vector-Borne and Zoo- notic Diseases, ahead of print. Vazquez, M., S. S. Sparrow, and E. D. Shapiro. 2003. Long-term neuropsychologic and health outcomes of children with facial nerve palsy attributable to Lyme disease. Pediatrics 112(2):e93-e97. Vazquez, M., C. Muehlenbein, M. Cartterj, E. B. Hayes, S. Ertel, and E. D. Shapiro. 2008. Effectiveness of personal protective measures to prevent Lyme disease. Emerging Infec- tious Diseases 14(2):210-216. von Loewenich, F. D., D. G. Scorpio, U. Reischl, J. S. Dumler, and C. Bogdan. 2004. Front- line: Control of anaplasma phagocytophilum, an obligate intracellular pathogen, in the absence of inducible nitric oxide synthase, phagocyte nadph oxidase, tumor necrosis fac- tor, toll-like receptor (TLR)2 and tlr4, or the TLR adaptor molecule myd88. European Journal of Immunology 34:1789-1797. Vrethem, M., L. Hellblom, and M. Widlund. 2002. Chronic symptoms are common in patients with neuroborreliosis – a questionnaire follow-up study. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica 106:205-208.

OCR for page 193
215 REFERENCES Walker, D. H., and H. N. Kirkman. 1980. Rocky mountain spotted fever and deficiency in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Journal of Infectious Diseases 142(5):771. Walker, D. H., H. K. Hawkins, and P. Hudson. 1983. Fulminant Rocky Mountain spotted fever—its pathologic characteristics associated with glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase deficiency. Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine 107(3):121-125. Walker, D. H., C. D. Paddock, and J. S. Dumler. 2008. Emerging and re-emerging tick- transmitted rickettsial and ehrlichial infections. Medical Clinics of North America 92(6):1345-1361. Wang, G., A. P. van Dam, A. Le Fleche, D. Postic, O. Peter, G. Baranton, R. de Boer, L. Spanjaard, and J. Dankert. 1997. Genetic and phenotypic analysis of Borrelia va- laisiana sp. Nov. (borrelia genomic groups vs116 and m19). International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 47(4):926-932. Wang, G., C. Ojaima, H. Wu, V. Saksenberg, R. Iyer, D. Liveris, S. A. McClain, G. P. Wormser, and I. Schwartz. 2002. Disease severity in a murine model of Lyme borreliosis is associ- ated with the genotype of the infecting Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto strain. Journal of Infectious Diseases 186:782-791. Wang, H. L., M. Moser, M. Schiltenwolf, and M. Buchner. 2008. Circulating cytokine levels compared to pain in patients with fibromyalgia—A prospective longitudinal study over 6 months. Journal of Rheumatology 35(7):1366-1370. Wang, I.-N., D. E. Dykhuizen, W. Qiu, J. J. Dunn, E. M. Bosler, and B. J. Luft. 1999. Genetic diversity of ospc in a local population of borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. Genetics 151(1):15-30. Wang, T. M., M. Akkoyunlu, R. Banerjee, and E. Fikrig. 2004. Interferon-gamma deficiency reveals that 129sv mice are inherently more susceptible to anaplasma phagocytophilum than c57bl/6 mice. FEMS Immunology & Medical Microbiology 42:299-305. Warren, J. W., V. Brown, S. Jacobs, L. Horne, P. Langenberg, and P. Greenberg. 2008. Urinary tract infection and inflammation at onset of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome. Urology 71(6):1085-1090. Wei, Q., M. Tsuji, A. Zamoto, M. Kohsaki, T. Matsui, T. Shiota, S. R. Telford, and C. Ishihara. 2001. Human babesiosis in Japan: Isolation of babesia microti-like parasites from an asymptomatic transfusion donor and from a rodent from an area where babesiosis is endemic. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 39(6):2178-2183. Weintraub, P. 2008. Cure unknown: Inside the Lyme Epidemic. New York: St. Martin’s Press. Weiss, E. 1973. Growth and physiology of rickettsiae. Bacteriology Review 37(3):259-283. Weissbecker, I., A. Floyd, E. Dedert, R. Salmon, and S. Sephton. 2006. Childhood trauma and diurnal cortisol disruption in fibromyalgia syndrome. Psychoneuroendocrinology 31(3):312-324. Weller, M., A. Stevens, N. Sommer, H. Wietholter, and J. Dichgans. 1991. Cerebrospinal fluid interleukins, immunoglobulins, and fibronectin in neuroborreliosis. Archives of Neurol- ogy 48(8):837-841. White, D. J., J. Talarico, H. G. Chang, G. S. Birkhead, T. Heimberger, and D. L. Morse. 1998. Human babesiosis in New York State—review of 139 hospitalized cases and analysis of prognostic factors. Archives of Internal Medicine 158(19):2149-2154. Widhe, M., S. Jarefors, C. Ekerfelt, M. Vrethem, S. Bergstrom, P. Forsberg, and J. Ernerudh. 2004. “Borrelia”-specific interferon-γ and interleukin-4 secretion in cerebrospinal fluid and blood during lyme borreuosis in humans: Association with clinical outcome. The Journal of Infectious Diseases 189(10):1881-1891. Willadsen, P. 2006. Tick control: Thoughts on a research agenda. Veterinary Parasitology 138(1-2):161-168.

OCR for page 193
216 CRITICAL RESEARCH NEEDS IN TICK-BORNE DISEASES Williams, C. V., J. L. Van Steenhouse, J. M. Bradley, S. I. Hancock, B. C. Hegarty, and E. B. Breitschwerdt. 2002. Naturally occurring Ehrlichia chaffeensis infection in two prosim- ian primate species: Ring-tailed lemurs (lemur catta) and ruffed lemurs (varecia varie- gata). Emerging Infectious Diseases 8(12):1497-1500. Williams, J. V., R. Martino, N. Rabella, M. Otegui, R. Parody, J. M. Heck, and J. J. E. Crowe. 2005. A prospective study comparing human metapneumovirus with other respiratory viruses in adults with hematologic malignancies and respiratory tract infections. Journal of Infectious Diseases 192(6):1061-1065. Wilson, M. L., S. R. Telford, 3rd, J. Piesman, and A. Spielman. 1988. Reduced abundance of immature Ixodes dammini (acari: Ixodidae) following elimination of deer. Journal of Medical Entomology 25(4):224-228. Wingenfeld, K., C. Heim, I. Schmidt, D. Wagner, G. Meinlschmidt, and D. H. Hellhammer. 2008. Hpa axis reactivity and lymphocyte glucocorticoid sensitivity in fibromyalgia syn- drome and chronic pelvic pain. Psychosomatic Medicine 70(1):65-72. Winslow, G. M., E. Yager, K. Shilo, E. Volk, A. Reilly, and F. K. Chu. 2000. Antibody-mediated elimination of the obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen Ehrlichia chaffeensis during active infection. Infection and Immunity 68:2187-2195. Woldehiwet, Z. 2006. Anaplasma phagocytophilum in ruminants in Europe. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1078:446-460. Wooten, R. M., Y. Ma, R. A. Yoder, J. P. Brown, J. H. Weis, J. F. Zachary, C. J. Kirschning, and J. J. Weis. 2002. Toll-like receptor 2 is required for innate, but not acquired, host defense to Borrelia burgdorferi. The Journal of Immunology 168:348-355. Wormser, G. P., D. McKenna, J. Carlin, R. B. Nadelman, L. F. Cavaliere, D. Holmgren, D. W. Byrne, and J. Nowakowski. 2005. Brief communication: Hematogenous dissemination in early Lyme disease. Annals of Internal Medicine 142(9):751-755. Wormser, G. P., R. J. Dattwyler, E. D. Shapiro, J. J. Halperin, A. C. Steere, M. S. Klempner, P. J. Krause, J. S. Bakken, F. Strle, G. Stanek, L. K. Bockenstedt, D. Fish, J. S. Dumler, and R. B. Nadelman. 2006. The clinical assessment, treatment, and prevention of Lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, and babesiosis: Clinical practice guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America Clinical Infectious Diseases 43(9):1089-1134. Wormser, G. P., D. Brisson, D. Liveris, K. Hanincova, S. Sandigursky, J. Nowakowski, R. B. Nadelman, S. Ludin, and I. Schwartz. 2008a. Borrelia burgdorferi genotype predicts the capacity for hematogenous dissemination during early Lyme disease. Journal of Infectious Diseases 198(9):1358-1364. Wormser, G. P., J. Nowakowski, R. B. Nadelman, P. Visintainer, A. Levin, and M. E. Aguero- Rosenfeld. 2008b. Impact of clinical variables on Borrelia burgdorferi-specific antibody seropositivity in acute-phase sera from patients in North America with culture-confirmed early Lyme disease. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology 15(10):1519-1522. Wormser, G. P., A. Prasad, E. Neuhaus, S. Joshi, J. Nowakowski, J. Nelson, A. Mittleman, M. Aguero-Rosenfeld, J. Topal, and P. J. Krause. 2010. Emergence of resistance to azithromycin-atovaquone in immunocompromised patients with Babesia microti infec- tion. Clinical Infectious Diseases 50(3):381-386. Wozniak, E. J., L. J. Lowenstine, R. Hemmer, T. Robinson, and P. A. Conrad. 1996. Compara- tive pathogenesis of human wa-1 and Babesia microti isolates in Syrian hamster model. American Association for Laboratory Animal Science 50(3):507-515. Yager, J. A., S. J. Best, R. G. Maggi, M. Varanat, N. Znajda, and E. B. Breitschwerdt. 2010. Bacillary angiomatosis in an immunosuppressed dog. Veterinary Dermatology 21(4):420-428. Young, C., and P. J. Krause. 2009. The problem of transfusion-transmitted babesiosis. Trans- fusion 2548-2550.

OCR for page 193
217 REFERENCES Zambrano, M. C., A. A. Beklemisheva, A. V. Bryksin, S. A. Newman, and F. C. Cabello. 2004. Borrelia burgdorferi binds to, invades, and colonizes native type I collagen lattices. Infec- tion and Immunity 72(6):3138-3146. Zautra, A. J., L. M. Johnson, and M. C. Davis. 2005. Positive affect as a source of resilience for women in chronic pain. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 73(2):212-220. Zent, O., and M. Broker. 2005. Tick-borne encephalitis vaccines: Past and present. Expert Review of Vaccines 4(5):747-755. Zhang, J. R., and S. J. Norris. 1998. Kinetics and in vivo induction of genetic variation of vlse in Borrelia burgdorferi. Infection and Immunity 66(8):3689-3697. Zhang, J. R., J. M. Hardham, A. G. Barbour, and S. J. Norris. 1997. Antigenic variation in Lyme disease borreliae by promiscuous recombination of vmp-like sequence cassettes. Cell 89(2):275-285. Zhioua, E., L. Gern, A. Aeschlimann, M. J. Sauvain, S. Van der Linden, and H. Fahrer. 1998. Longitudinal study of Lyme borreliosis in a high risk population in Switzerland. Parasite- Journal De La Societe Francaise De Parasitologie 5(4):383-386. Zintl, A., G. Mulcahy, H. E. Skerrett, S. M. Taylor, and J. S. Gray. 2003. Babesia divergens, a bovine blood parasite of veterinary and zoonotic importance. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 16(4):622-636.

OCR for page 193