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Committee on U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Water Resources Science, Engineering, and Planning Water Science and Technology Board Division on Earth and Life Studies

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Gov- erning Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the panel respon - sible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report is based upon work supported by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Humphreys Engineer Center Support Activity under Contract No. W912HQ- 09-C-0041. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Humphreys Engineer Center Sup - port Activity. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-21832-0 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-21832-4 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2011 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal govern - ment on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its mem - bers, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advis - ing the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in pro - viding services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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COMMITTEE ON U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS WATER RESOURCES, SCIENCE, ENGINEERING, AND PLANNING DAVID A. DZOMBAK, Chair, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania PATRICK A. ATKINS, ALCOA (ret.), Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania GREGORY B. BAECHER, University of Maryland, College Park LINDA K. BLUM, University of Virginia, Charlottesville ROBERT A. DALRYMPLE, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland MISGANAW DEMISSIE, Illinois State Water Survey, Champaign TERRANCE FULP, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Boulder City, Nevada LARRY A. LARSON, Association of State Floodplain Managers, Madison, Wisconsin DIANE M. MCKNIGHT, University of Colorado, Boulder J. WALTER MILON, University of Central Florida, Orlando A. DAN TARLOCK, Chicago-Kent College of Law, Chicago, Illinois PETER R. WILCOCK, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland NRC Staff JEFFREY JACOBS, Study Director SARAH E. BRENNAN, Senior Program Assistant v

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WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY BOARD DONALD I. SIEGEL, Chair, Syracuse University, New York LISA M. ALVAREZ-COHEN, University of California, Berkeley YU-PING CHIN, Ohio State University, Columbus OTTO C. DOERING III, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana GERALD E. GALLOWAY, University of Maryland, College Park GEORGE R. HALLBERG, The Cadmus Group, Watertown, Massachusetts KENNETH R. HERD, Southwest Florida Water Management District, Brooksville GEORGE M. HORNBERGER, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee MICHAEL J. MCGUIRE, Michael J. McGuire, Inc., Santa Monica, California DAVID H. MOREAU, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill DENNIS D. MURPHY, University of Nevada, Reno MARYLYNN V. YATES, University of California, Riverside Staff STEPHEN D. PARKER, Director JEFFREY JACOBS, Scholar LAURA J. EHLERS, Senior Staff Officer STEPHANIE E. JOHNSON, Senior Staff Officer LAURA J. HELSABECK, Staff Officer M. JEANNE AQUILINO, Financial and Administrative Associate ELLEN A. DE GUZMAN, Senior Program Associate ANITA A. HALL, Senior Program Associate MICHAEL STOEVER, Research Associate SARAH E. BRENNAN, Senior Program Assistant vi

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Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report was authored by the National Research Council Commit- tee on U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Water Resources Science, Engineering, and Planning. A draft version of the committee’s report was reviewed by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise in accordance with the procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the NRC in making its published report as sound as possible, and to ensure that the report meets NRC institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their reviews of this report: Richard A. Conway (retired), Union Carbide Corporation; Gerald E. Galloway, University of Maryland; Peter Gleick, Pacific Institute for Studies in Development, Environment, and Security; George R. Hall - berg, The Cadmus Group; Chris T. Hendrickson, Carnegie Mellon Univer- sity; W. Allen Marr, Geocomp Corporation; Denise J. Reed, University of New Orleans; and Marylynn V. Yates, University of California, Riverside. Although these reviewers provided constructive comments and sug- gestions, they were not asked to endorse the report’s conclusions and recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Leo M. Eisel (retired), Brown and Caldwell, Denver, Colo., who was appointed by the National vii

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viii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Research Council. Dr. Eisel was responsible for ensuring that an inde- pendent examination of this report was conducted in accordance with NRC institutional procedures and that all review comments received full consideration. Responsibility for this report’s final contents rests entirely with the authoring committee and the NRC.

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Contents SUMMARY 1 NATIONAL WATER RESOURCES CHALLENGES FACING THE U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS 5 Introduction, 5 Twenty-first-century Water Resources Planning and Management, 7 National Water Management Infrastructure and Investments, 10 Corps of Engineering Capacities and Planning, 13 Authorization and Appropriations Process, 15 Decentralization of Planning and Operational Decisions, 17 Traditional Responsibilities and Expanding Missions, 19 Future Prospects for the Corps in National Water Resources Management and Leadership, 21 REFERENCES 25 APPENDIXES A Guest Speakers at Committee Meetings 27 B Corps of Engineers Civil Works Program Statistics 29 C Biographical Information: Committee on U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Science, Engineering, and Planning 35 ix

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