• Advances in deployable facilities for the machine translation of foreign-language material in ways that are clearly relevant to real Army problems; new work that has combined ARL’s strengths in both quantum physics and advanced high-performance computing to perform first-in-the-world demonstrations for what can be described as a potentially entirely new way of imaging—called Quantum Ghost Imaging—through scattering and absorbing media; and promising work on social network analysis that focuses on constructing and analyzing social networks from sparsely tagged, unstructured data for tactical “data-to-decision” relationship discovery service;

  • The development of single-trial-based, Army-relevant paradigms for brain-behavior analysis, including the demonstration that electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings of brain activity can be analyzed on a trial-by-trial basis, using independent component analysis (ICA) methods to reveal the neural basis of “Shoot/Don’t shoot” behavior;

  • Leadership in the work in quantum detectors and III-nitride materials for sources and detectors, in acoustic processing and electromagnetic field sensing, and in semiconductor power switching and conditioning devices;

  • State-of-the-art work on the compressor-tip-injection stall control that couples experimental data and computational fluid mechanics and will enable the industrial design community to improve gas turbine fuel economy and reduce compressor stall; windage work in high-speed gear systems that promises to improve gearbox efficiency across a wide range of vehicles; and groundbreaking work on microautonomous systems;

  • The clear evolution of armor in various ways over the years as the threats have also evolved: in particular, improvised explosive devices are creating new demands on armor. Advances in materials and computational tools have made possible new approaches to address passive armor protection. The armor work highlighted for the Board clearly showed the strong value to the Army of the ballistic protection technology and development capabilities of the Weapons and Materials Research Directorate (WMRD). The results and accomplishments that were shown were very impressive and clearly demonstrate ARL’s preeminent position in the United States in armor development; and

  • The WMRD-led science and technology (S&T) effort that resulted in the type classification of the M855A1 round, providing an example of how the S&T program has changed within the Army. The M855A1 solves a need for an improved 5.56 mm round that can deliver more consistent antipersonnel lethality in a variety of operational scenarios and that can also deliver adequate performance against light armor and be environmentally friendly (green). The WMRD effort focused on gaining a detailed understanding of the causes of the performance issues associated with the current M855 round from the integrated viewpoints of aeroballistic, terminal ballistic, and personnel incapacitation concerns. This improved understanding permitted a WMRD-led team to identify a new design concept that could provide improved performance and also be more environmentally friendly than the currently fielded M855 round is.

Many ARL challenges require cross-directorate collaboration. ARL should continue to address several specific areas that require collaboration across ARL directorates. These areas include robotics and autonomous systems, computation and modeling, network science, energy science, and materials by design.

ARL has been responding admirably to severe pressures to transition new technologies quickly to the field and to address those challenging requirements of emerging Army programs at the same time that it maintains its role with respect to longer-term basic research. The types of endeavor involved in



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