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FIGURE 4-1 Preventive intervention research cycle.
SOURCE: IOM, 1994.

in sufficient detail that the intervention can be replicated as necessary, and it is represented by the arrow that connects boxes 3 and 4. The term dissemination refers to a set of activities that is intended to expand the usage of an intervention and is represented by box 5. The phrase “scaling up” was used frequently by workshop participants and is interpreted within this summary to refer to dissemination activities.

DATA FROM LOW- AND MIDDLE-INCOME COUNTRIES

The use of data was an important theme of the workshop, and a number of participants commented on the dearth of data available from low- and middle-income countries. Workshop speaker Claudia García-Moreno noted that the majority of the evidence base related to violence against women and children comes from high-income countries. Another workshop speaker, James Lang from the United Nations Development Programme, commented that the currently available data have a number of problems related to the methodologies and measurements used and the lack of longitudinal data. Workshop participants mentioned a number of implications that the limitations in data from low- and middle-income countries have for successful prevention of violence against women and children. These implications will be discussed later in this section.

Although workshop participants lamented the lack of data from low- and middle-income countries, many speakers also noted that significant progress has been made over the past decade. In particular, speakers mentioned a number of studies that have taken place in low- and middle-income countries in recent years as examples of high-quality studies with a focus on violence prevention, some of which were coordinated by the speakers and participants at the workshop. Three studies that were frequently cited



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