4

Best Practices, Tools, and Technologies for Transformational Change

To meet its charge, the committee was asked to identify current best practices and ways to optimize resources for achieving high-performance green building objectives during planning, design, construction, operations, and maintenance for new and existing facilities. As noted in Chapter 1, the committee defined best practices as “processes, procedures, or technologies that optimize available resources and could be effectively applied by the GSA and other federal agencies to meet similar objectives.”

Chapter 4 highlights a range of practices, tools, and technologies that can be used to achieve a range of objectives for high-performance facilities. The best practices, tools, and technologies were primarily identified through presentations given to the committee at its meetings, the public workshop, and the workshop breakout sessions.

Summaries of some of the presentations are contained in Appendixes D through I. The summaries provide more context and detail about specific initiatives and should be read as an integral part of the committee’s report. The presentations include the following:

  • Transformative Action Through Systems-Based Thinking, by Bob Berkebile (Appendix D), discusses sustainable initiatives taking place in Greensburg, Kansas, North Charleston, South Carolina, and at several universities and also discusses the evolving nature of architecture and design.
  • Sustainable Fort Carson: An Integrated Approach, by Christopher Juniper and Hal Alguire (Appendix E), focuses on the development of sustainability goals for Fort Carson, Colorado, and strategies and approaches being used to meet those goals.
  • Beyond Incrementalism: The Case of Arlington, Virginia, by Peter Garforth (Appendix F), focuses on the collaborative, systems-based approach that is being used to develop a community-wide energy plan with the goal of more efficient use of energy and significant reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.
  • Getting to Net-Zero Energy: NREL’s Research Support Facility, by Jeffrey Baker (Appendix G), is a case study of a near-net-zero federal office building that was completed in June 2010 for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).


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4 Best Practices, Tools, and Technologies for Transformational Change To meet its charge, the committee was asked to identify current best practices and ways to optimize resources for achieving high-performance green building objectives during planning, design, construc- tion, operations, and maintenance for new and existing facilities. As noted in Chapter 1, the committee defined best practices as “processes, procedures, or technologies that optimize available resources and could be effectively applied by the GSA and other federal agencies to meet similar objectives.” Chapter 4 highlights a range of practices, tools, and technologies that can be used to achieve a range of objectives for high-performance facilities. The best practices, tools, and technologies were primarily identified through presentations given to the committee at its meetings, the public workshop, and the workshop breakout sessions. Summaries of some of the presentations are contained in Appendixes D through I. The summaries provide more context and detail about specific initiatives and should be read as an integral part of the committee’s report. The presentations include the following: • Transformative Action Through Systems-Based Thinking, by Bob Berkebile (Appendix D), discusses sustainable initiatives taking place in Greensburg, Kansas, North Charleston, South Carolina, and at several universities and also discusses the evolving nature of architecture and design. • Sustainable Fort Carson: An Integrated Approach, by Christopher Juniper and Hal Alguire (Appendix E), focuses on the development of sustainability goals for Fort Carson, Colorado, and strategies and approaches being used to meet those goals. • Beyond Incrementalism: The Case of Arlington, Virginia, by Peter Garforth (Appendix F), focuses on the collaborative, systems-based approach that is being used to develop a community-wide energy plan with the goal of more efficient use of energy and significant reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. • Getting to Net-Zero Energy: NREL’s Research Support Facility, by Jeffrey Baker (Appendix G), is a case study of a near-net-zero federal office building that was completed in June 2010 for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). 39

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40 ACHIEVING HIGH-PERFORMANCE FEDERAL FACILITIES • Sustainable Asset Management: The Case of Los Angeles Community College District (LACCD), by Thomas Hall (Appendix H), describes how an academic institution is creating nine campuses of high-performance facilities. • The Economics of Sustainability: The Business Case That Makes Itself, by Greg Kats (Appendix I), presents evidence-based data from a new report, Greening Our Built World: Costs, Benefits, and Strategies (Kats, 2010). BEST PRACTICES, TOOLS, AND TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO SYSTEMS-BASED THINKING The purpose of systems-based thinking is to find more efficient ways to use resources throughout their life cycle to deliver products and services. The following examples highlight collaborative pro- cesses for setting ambitious goals and learning how systems-based thinking is being used to achieve those goals. Tools to enable systems-based thinking, and technologies that are enabled by systems-based thinking are also discussed. Examples of Collaborative Goal Setting Greensburg, Kansas Following the total destruction of their town by a tornado, the citizens of Greensburg, Kansas, used systems-based thinking as a basis for the town’s reconstruction as a sustainable community (Figure 4.1). They systematically reconsidered the local economy, lifestyle, how people choose to use their time, and their future (see Appendix D). They developed a vision for what they wanted to achieve and then developed specific goals related to community, family, prosperity, environment, affordability, growth, renewal, water, health, energy, wind, and the built environment. Commitment from the whole community was sought at each stage of redevelopment planning and reconstruction (i.e., developing objectives and goals, preliminary design, detailed design, commitment of funds, construction, and postoccupancy). By using systems-based thinking, the new Greensburg master plan optimizes the use of available resources. For example, rainwater and stormwater are captured in the landscape and the streetscape, purified, used, and then repurified for reuse (Figure 4.2). The sources of other resources, such as energy, were also identified and systematically evaluated to find ways to eliminate waste, optimize their use, and to achieve multiple objectives. The Oberlin Project The Oberlin Project is one of 18 Clinton Climate Initiative’s climate positive projects. It grows out of Oberlin College’s own campus sustainability initiatives and has become a collaborative venture involving Oberlin College, the municipal government, including the city schools, local townships, the municipal power company, private-sector organizations, local churches and nongovernmental organizations, and a major foundation. To help provide direction for the project, an advisory committee has been established that includes some of the nation’s leading sustainability experts from architecture, urban design, renew- able energy, and economic planning. In contrast to Greensburg, Kansas, this project builds on an existing “town and gown” community. The goal is to transform Oberlin into a model of a post-fossil-fuel economy and sustainable development that can be widely emulated. Investments in building construction, renovation, and energy technology in a 13-block area of Oberlin’s downtown are intended to fulfill multiple broad objectives. The objec-

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41 BEST PRACTICES, TOOLS, AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR TRANSFORMATIONAL CHANGE fig 4-1.eps FIGURE 4.1 Clockwise from left: Greensburg, Kansas, after tornado; new master plan; new, LEED-certified buildings. SOURCE: Top photo by Larry Schwarm. Other photos by BNIM Architects. bitmap FIGURE 4.2 Conceptual design for new streetscape in Greensburg, Kansas. SOURCE: BNIM Architects. fig 4-2.eps tives include stimulating the expansion of existing businesses, creating new enterprises related to energy bitmap services, solar technologies, creating a vibrant arts community, and beginning a long-term conversation about the sciences around the many issues of sustainability (Figure 4.3).

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42 ACHIEVING HIGH-PERFORMANCE FEDERAL FACILITIES Carbon Neutral School Green arts block Apollo Theater East College St project Full Circle Fuels South Main St FIGURE 4.3 Thirteen-block area that is the focus of sustainable development in Oberlin, Ohio. SOURCE: Courtesy of fig 4-3.eps David Orr. bitmap w vector elements Fort Carson, Colorado Fort Carson, Colorado is one of the first three Army installations to pilot the concept of sustain- ability. The Fort Carson staff involved community leaders from the adjacent city of Colorado Springs to participate in the development of Fort Carson’s original set of sustainability goals. The goals have since been updated (Box 4.1). To implement these goals, the installation first used a hybrid management system that combined the aspirational goals with the existing environmental management system designed to ensure environmental legal compliance. The goals for sustainability have been integrated into the garrison’s strategic plans, which are updated by the garrison commander to reflect multiple objectives related to soldiers, families, the workforce, and Fort Carson’s training mission. Personnel at Fort Carson are currently using systems-based thinking to achieve their transportation goals, including a 40 percent reduction in vehicle miles. They are working with local transit agencies and nonprofits to develop a regional transportation system that will serve the installation and the adjacent community. The staff has been able to develop innovative solutions by focusing on providing the service of mobility instead of focusing on existing infrastructure. The integrated mobility system now under consideration incorporates private-sector-provided car sharing, low-powered vehicle sharing (bikes, electric bikes), on-call transit services, enhanced telework strategies, and expansion of pedestrian and low-impact vehicle infrastructure (Figure 4.4).

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43 BEST PRACTICES, TOOLS, AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR TRANSFORMATIONAL CHANGE BOX 4.1 Fort Carson Sustainability Goals 2002-2027, as of 2010 • 00 percent renewable energy, maximum produced on the installation 1 • 5 percent reduction of potable water purchased 2002-2027 7 • ustainable transpor tation achieved, characterized by 40 percent vehicle miles reduction S from 2002 and development of sustainable transportation options • ustainable development (facilities planning) S • ero waste (solid waste, hazardous air emissions, wastewater) Z • 00 percent sustainable procurement 1 • ustaining training lands—meaning ongoing capability of the biological health of training S lands in support of the installation’s primary mission to train soldiers FIGURE 4.4 Fort Carson Concept for multi-modal solar powered sustainable mobility. SOURCE: Courtesy of PRT Consulting (Appendix E). fig 4-4.eps The staff continues to use collaborative processes to achieve a variety of goals. For example, they bitmap are currently developing a regional sustainable energy plan, the Pristine Energy Project, in partnership with the Pikes Peak Sierra Club. Technical support is being provided as needed on a volunteer basis by NREL, the Colorado Governor’s Energy Office, the Southwest Energy Efficiency Project, and the Colorado Renewable Energy Society. One aspect of the planning process is to identify the barriers to providing renewable sources of energy to the customers who want it. It is anticipated that a plan will be available in 2011 that will identify for public policy makers a path for helping buyers who want renew- able energy to be able to buy it from providers at a reasonable cost (Appendix E). Arlington County, Virginia This close-in suburb to Washington, D.C., is developing a community energy plan around the goals of competitiveness, security, and the environment. This is a collaborative effort of the Arlington County government, representatives from the Chamber of Commerce, local gas and electric utilities, property developers, civic associations, and major governmental landholders, including Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport, the Pentagon, and Fort Myer. A community task force was established to provide input and oversight for the effort. In addition, a technical working group was established that included experts from North America and Europe to provide wide-ranging expertise and differing perspectives.

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44 ACHIEVING HIGH-PERFORMANCE FEDERAL FACILITIES In developing the plan, the community established goals. The environmental goal is for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions at a breakthrough level. Systems-based thinking is being used to identify where and how electricity is produced, how it is transferred to the county, and how much is used by businesses, government, residents, commuters, and others. This type of analysis will serve as the basis for determining where there are opportunities to reduce energy use by implementing district energy systems, public transit, and other solutions. This effort takes advantage of the results and lessons learned from community energy plans implemented in Copenhagen, Denmark, and Guelph, Canada, which have documented their results (Appendix F). Many additional systems-based initiatives are under way that deserve study. They include programs at the Army’s Fort Lewis, Fort Hood, and Fort McCord installations, the Department of the Navy’s Energy Program for Security and Independence,1 and Cornell University’s Climate Action Plan.2 Tools for Enabling Systems-Based Thinking Available and emerging Internet-based tools can be used by federal agencies to support systems- based thinking and life-cycle assessment and to evaluate the environmental impacts of building materials and components. Such software programs help to evaluate upstream decisions on purchasing and the supply chain for materials, energy, water, and other resources. The following were identified during the course of this activity: • Building for Environmental and Economic Sustainability (BEES). Developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology Engineering Laboratory, the BEES software allows for the selection of 230 cost-effective, environmentally preferable building products. All stages in the life of a product are analyzed: raw material acquisition, manufacture, transportation, installation, use, and recycling and waste management. Economic performance is measured using life-cycle costing, including the costs of initial investment, replacement, operation, maintenance and repair, and disposal. Environmental and economic performance are combined into an overall performance measure using the American Society for Testing and Materials standard for Multi-Attribute Decision Analysis. Additional information is available at http://www.nist.gov/el/economics/ BEESSoftware.cfm. • The Athena Institute. A nonprofit organization, this institute has developed life-cycle tools for evaluating the sustainability of building materials, building assemblies. and whole buildings. Additional information is available at http://www.athenasmi.org/index.html. • One Planet Communities incorporates a systems-based approach for planning at the community, campus, or portfolio level. Originally developed in the United Kingdom, the system establishes 10 areas of study and corresponding goals. Software is available to help with the assessment of possible approaches during the design alternatives phase. Additional information is available at http://www.oneplanetcommunities.org/about-2/principles/. • EARTHSTER. This software program is scheduled for release in the fall of 2011. The development of EARTHSTER began during the design of a new school of nursing in Houston, Texas, when it was determined that a more efficient process was needed to analyze best material choices. Software was created to allow the designers to use a large body of data collected by the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Commerce for counties. The data were used to evaluate the upstream environmental impact of design decisions and then to improve the selections and the 1 Available at http://greenfleet.dodlive.mil/files/2010/04/Naval_Energy_Strategic_Roadmap_100710.pdf. 2 Available at http://www.sustainablecampus.cornell.edu/climate/.

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45 BEST PRACTICES, TOOLS, AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR TRANSFORMATIONAL CHANGE performance of the building and to evaluate the economic consequences of decisions (Appendix D). The current version of EARTHSTER is being piloted by Walmart to communicate with and improve the performance of its suppliers. When the system is released, it will be open and free to all users who are willing to contribute information about their supply chains. The ultimate goal of the software designers is to provide actionable analysis of the environmental and social impacts of product life cycles and supply chains to accelerate the transition to sustainable products. Additional information is available at www.earthster.org. BEST PRACTICES, TOOLS, AND TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO PORTFOLIO-BASED FACILITIES MANAGEMENT Well-designed facilities portfolio management programs start with a clear framing of facilities- management goals linked to overarching organizational goals and mission and a careful blueprint for the capabilities and requirements of existing facilities. Examples of best practices for goal setting and for planning and programming are identified below. Because the performance of existing buildings will be critical if agencies are to meet their goals for high-performance facilities, efficient operations and replacements and retrofits of existing building systems will be especially important. Goal Setting Fort Carson and the Office of Overseas Buildings Operations provide examples of best practices for setting goals that tie both facilities management and sustainable strategies to organizational mission: • Fort Carson, Colorado. The goal of the facilities management team is to provide mission support and services, including quality of life programs for Fort Carson soldiers, families, and community. To enable the organizational mission, they have adopted a sustainable approach for facilities that provides superior work and living environments for soldiers and their families and avoids facilities-related costs by saving energy, water, and other natural resources. • State Department’s Office of Overseas Buildings Operations (OBO). The goal of the OBO is to create platforms for eco-diplomacy by greening U.S. embassies and consulates worldwide and to minimize the impacts of overseas facilities by designing, constructing, operating, and demolishing buildings in an energy-efficient and environmentally sensitive manner. Planning and Programming Examples of effective planning and programming practices using a portfolio-based approach were the following: • Virtual embassies. Where appropriate, the OBO is minimizing the environmental impact of its overseas facilities by providing services to citizens and others online instead of building new embassies. By doing so, they have eliminated the need for capital investment, avoided building- related life-cycle costs, mitigated the environmental impacts of buildings, reduced travel to and from an embassy, and improved the physical security of State Department employees by not placing them in harm’s way. OBO staff acknowledge that an online presence is not appropriate for all countries or situations. However, where appropriate, the cost savings and other benefits that accrue to the State Department and others from virtual embassies are likely to be substantial. One example is the virtual consulate for Bangalore, India (http://bangalore.usvpp.gov).

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46 ACHIEVING HIGH-PERFORMANCE FEDERAL FACILITIES • Historic buildings. Federal agencies manage historic buildings as part of their portfolios. Many historic buildings were high-performance green buildings when they were originally constructed: They used passive techniques for heating and cooling coupled with natural daylighting and ventilation strategies. However, their performance may have been compromised over time through the accretion of mechanical systems and the elimination of original components. By carefully retrofitting and replacing existing systems, some historic buildings can become high-performance buildings again. One example of such an effort is the 92-year old Wayne Aspinall federal building in Grand Junction, Colorado. The GSA is contracting to rebuild the structure from within by replacing existing mechanical and electrical systems. The goal is to create a zero-net-energy building, which could make it the first zero-net-energy building on the National Register of Historic Places (Daily Sentinel, December 2, 2010) (Figure 4.5). Operations, Maintenance, Repair, and Replacement Federal agencies have significant opportunities to upgrade the performance of existing building systems through effective operations, through routine maintenance, repair, replacement programs, and through retrofit projects. Building commissioning is a well-recognized best practice for effective operation of building systems in existing conventionally designed buildings as well as newer buildings designed to be more sustain- able. It is intended to ensure that building systems are installed that perform at the level to which they were designed. If building systems are operated and maintained to continue to perform at that level, the result will be lower energy consumption and lower life-cycle costs than if the systems are not operated and maintained appropriately. Total building commissioning is an overarching process that can be effectively used for new buildings beginning in the design phase, including the setting of goals related to design for operability and com- missioning at the start of the project. The Guiding Principles for Federal Leadership in High Performance and Sustainable Buildings recommend the use of total building commissioning practices in order to verify the performance of building components and systems and help ensure that design requirements are met. For existing buildings, the recommissioning of heating, ventilation, air conditioning (HVAC) sys- tems can be undertaken every 3 to 5 years to ensure that mechanical systems are able to deliver thermal comfort and air quality in an energy-effective manner. Studies published by the Lawrence Berkeley FIGURE 4.5 Wayne Aspinall Federal Building, Grand Junction, Colorado. SOURCE: GSA. fig 4-5.eps bitmap

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47 BEST PRACTICES, TOOLS, AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR TRANSFORMATIONAL CHANGE National Laboratory identified 15 percent energy savings through HVAC commissioning, with less than a 9-month payback, across a large portfolio of existing buildings (Mills, 2009). 3 The city of New York is incorporating building commissioning as an important strategy for creating significant energy and environmental impacts into its planning documents.4 Because different building components wear out at different rates, there is an opportunity to replace worn-out components with more efficient ones on a routine basis. As water and light fixtures, appliances, or computers wear out or become obsolete, they can be replaced by WaterSense fixtures, 5 compact flo- rescent lamps, Energy Star equipment and appliances, and the like. Additional significant improvements in the performance of existing buildings can be achieved through the integration of technologies when roofs, windows, heating, and lighting systems are replaced or during major retrofits. When retrofits are undertaken, retro-commissioning or recommissioning pro- cesses can be used to ensure that the upgraded mechanical systems are installed to operate as they were designed or to ensure the airtightness of building enclosures and insulation. In any given year, federal agencies replace the roofs on a significant number of buildings. Replac- ing conventional black bitumen roofs, which typically wear out after 20 years, with cool white roofs or vegetated green roofs, which have 20-30 year service lives, can be cost effective. Both white and green roofs have additional advantages over conventional roofs and in relation to each other, as described in Chapter 3. Tools to Enable Portfolio-Based Facilities Management Many federal agencies already use computerized maintenance management systems and other tools to support the management of their operations and maintenance programs. The EPA’s Portfolio Manager is an interactive energy management tool that allows an organization to track and assess energy and water consumption across its entire portfolio of buildings in a secure online environment. It can help an organization set its investment priorities, identify underperforming buildings, and verify efficiency improvements. Additional information is available at http://www.energystar.gov/ index.cfm?c=evaluate_performance.bus_portfoliomanager. Technologies Enabled by Portfolio-Based Facilities Management Several organizations described initiatives using district energy systems and combined heat and power plants. District energy systems are especially well suited to military installations, campus-type settings, and areas of higher density development, such as portions of cities. As part of its community energy plan, Arlington County, Virginia, is studying how it can develop district energy systems to service existing concentrations of high density development (Appendix F). The Los Angeles Community College District (LACCD) is creating district energy systems and testing a number of renewable energy sources and generation and storage technologies across its nine campuses (Appendix H). One plant incorporates solar thermal technology to take care of the heating and cooling load of a campus by using an absorption chiller for cooling and stored hot water for heating. A second campus is using a combination of solar power for energy generation and thermal energy storage in the form of both ice storage and hot water storage (Figure 4.6). 3 Report available at http://eetd.lbl.gov/ea/emills/presentations/mills_cx_ucsc.pdf. 4 Additional information is available at www.nyc.gov/planyc2030. 5 Additional information is available at http://www.epa.gov/WaterSense/.

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48 ACHIEVING HIGH-PERFORMANCE FEDERAL FACILITIES FIGURE 4.6 Valley College central plant components:fSolar array (top left), hot water storage (top right), new infrastructure ig 4-6.eps bitmap for delivering power; and vacuum tube heat-pipe collectors (bottom). SOURCE: Courtesy of the LACCD. BEST PRACTICES, TOOLS, AND TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO INTEGRATED WORK PROCESSES Integrated work processes can be used to overcome fragmented decision making and are essential for achieving the multiple objectives associated with high-performance facilities. Such processes incor- porate extensive up-front planning involving all significant stakeholders in order to optimize the choice of materials, energy systems, and other building components. The research support facility at the NREL (Appendix G) exemplifies the effective use of integrated work processes, from goal setting through design and acquisition. The resulting building integrates the use of the locally available natural resources with building technologies to create an office building that will be highly energy efficient. NREL Research Support Facility The NREL staff developed three sets of performance-based goals for the proposed building and established a fixed budget for the building, its furnishings, and equipment. The goals included a set of energy requirements, space for 800 people, and achievement of a LEED Platinum rating. An integrated acquisition process was used. The performance-based goals allowed the contrac- tors bidding on the project to use their creativity in providing alternative designs that would meet the goals. Components of the acquisition strategy included a performance-based request for proposals, a

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49 BEST PRACTICES, TOOLS, AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR TRANSFORMATIONAL CHANGE national conceptual design competition, design-build project delivery, and a firm-fixed price contract with incentives. Throughout the project, the owner and the designers analyzed all aspects of the new building’s energy use, including equipment, the data center, and lighting. They considered what natural resources were available to provide lighting, heating, and cooling in order to reduce the energy used by electrical and mechanical systems. They also looked at total building energy performance over its life cycle, including how the building would be operated. The energy budget and design for the project • Included total energy use that would take place in the building from appliances, equipment, computers, and the like; • Required replacing all computers and electronic systems with more efficient ones; • Provided 100 percent day lighting of all work spaces; • Used the structural concrete foundation system as a large thermal battery for free heating and cooling from the outside; and • Included full monitoring of energy use. The opportunity to integrate the foundation into the heating and cooling system could only be real- ized through effective up-front planning: Retrofit after the fact would not have been possible. NREL staff acknowledged that the process required significant owner involvement up front. However, the resulting building met or exceeded the established goals and was also completed within the original budget and at the same cost per square foot as a conventional building in that region. The resulting building is shaped to take advantage of its climate and integrates a range of progressive technologies. The southern facade incorporates careful solar shading and transpired solar collectors— dark-colored perforated metal sheeting that preheats incoming air and stores it in the building’s crawl space—along with waste heat recovered from the computer data center. The building itself—its walls, floors, and foundations—functions as a “large thermal battery,” storing and then releasing free heat or extracting it in cooling mode, boosted by radiant floor heating and evaporative cooling if required. Photovoltaic arrays have been installed across the building’s roof and the adjacent visitors’ parking lot through a power purchase agreement. Workspaces in this building are almost 100 percent daylit—a function of the building’s narrow (60 foot) floor plate and the incorporation of “light-shelves” above the windows that reflect daylight onto the ceiling. By capturing daylight and eliminating the waste of heat by electric lighting, the designers were able to reduce the size and cost of mechanical and electrical systems and invest those savings in a higher-performance façade (Figure 4.7). To reduce electricity use, desktop computers were replaced with laptops, standard telephones were replaced with Voice-over-Internet, and a system was installed that turns the power off if a computer is not in use. Tools to Enable Integrated Work Processes Having quality information available at the beginning of a project can support effective decision making about the design of new buildings or retrofits and can improve the outcomes significantly. A range of modeling, virtual design, and other technologies are available to support integrative design processes. Such applications are particularly powerful when combined in interoperable models (often referred to as building information models, BIMs) that allow for the sharing of electronic data among

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50 ACHIEVING HIGH-PERFORMANCE FEDERAL FACILITIES FIGURE 4.7 From top left: NREL research support facility; labyrinth thermal storage; daylit interior. SOURCE: U.S Depart- fig 4-7.eps ment of Energy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and Pat Corkery. bitmap a project’s owners, clients, contractors, and suppliers, and across an organization’s design, engineering, operations, project management, financial, and legal units (NRC, 2009). Tools to enable integrated design processes include digital terrain models and civil features; architec- tural models for façade, roof, and interior; structural models for analysis, design, and detailing; energy models for equipment, plug loads and lighting; and integrated BIMs for analysis and coordination of all types of building systems. Integrated modeling tools are also beginning to allow partially automated fabrication of materials and components for high-performance buildings, such as earthwork and paving (using GIS), structural and reinforcing steel, building facades with complex geometry, process and ser- vices piping, and HVAC ductwork. During the planning for the NREL research support facility, energy models were used extensively: Every design decision was checked against the energy model, a practice that was critical to the design outcomes, particularly when it was necessary to make trade-offs (Appendix G). Similarly, models were used to test drive the design of the University of Georgia’s new Odum School of Ecology against two existing buildings to determine its performance in energy and water use (Appendix D). BIM technologies were effectively used in the design of the Internal Revenue Service building in Kansas City, Missouri, to analyze many scenarios quickly so as to advance the best concepts—those that would satisfy a range of stakeholders and create an environment in which the occupants could feel good about their environment and experience better health and increased productivity (Appendix D). The design of the Point Pavilion band shell in North Charleston, South Carolina, exemplifies another use of BIM (Figure 4.8). In this case, the deadline for completion of the project did not allow for conventional design and construction practices. The architects e-mailed the design (using BIM) to the contractor. The design documents were created and approved electronically and then entered directly into the contractor’s manufacturing system (computer-controlled fabrication) (Appendix D).

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51 BEST PRACTICES, TOOLS, AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR TRANSFORMATIONAL CHANGE fig 4-8.eps FIGURE 4.8 Point Pavilion designed and delivered using BIM. SOURCE: BNIM Architects. bitmap The committee recognizes that a number of barriers remain in making interoperability and building information modeling a fully operable, deployable technology. First, the use of BIM applications varies significantly among architects, engineers, general contractors, and subcontractors (Jones, 2009). The applications and technologies are only rarely integrated across all phases of a project, so their benefits are not fully optimized. In addition, barriers remain in developing fully operable systems, including legal issues, data storage capacity, and the ability to search thousands of data items quickly to support real- time decision making. Because there is insufficient interoperability within the capital facilities sector of the construction industry, causing $15.8 billion in inefficiencies and lost opportunities every year (NIST, 2004), development should continue as rapidly as possible (NRC, 2009). BEST PRACTICES, TOOLS, AND TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO PROCUREMENT AND FINANCE Because funding levels will likely remain unchanged or be reduced in future federal budgets, fed- eral agencies will need to find ways to leverage their available resources if the goals and objectives for high-performance facilities are to be achieved. The committee identified a range of best practices for procurement and third-party financing of projects that could be used by federal agencies. Among these were more efficient procurement practices, collaborative partnerships, and the strategic use of volume purchasing power. Efficient Procurement Practices More efficient procurement practices have the potential to significantly reduce transaction costs and save staff time. For example, to save time and money in procuring products for its campuses, the LACCD has developed master agreements. All nine colleges work from the same agreement to procure furniture and there is a specified standard for recycled material, carpeting, and other products. Such agreements cut transaction costs by improving efficiency: It is no longer necessary for each campus to develop and confirm its own set of specifications. An additional outcome is that such agreements allow

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52 ACHIEVING HIGH-PERFORMANCE FEDERAL FACILITIES the LACCD to take advantage of its purchasing power to secure discounts from providers who know that the LACCD will be buying in large volumes (Appendix H). Guidelines can also take the form of checklists with questions that can be applied at every decision point to help embed sustainability at all levels of decision making. An example of such a checklist to promote sustainable spending decisions is shown in Box 4.2. To be able to use solar power on a widespread basis, the State Department procures solar panels centrally and then distributes them to its embassies. The provider of solar panels is Unicor, which is operated by Federal Prison Industries as a self-sustaining, self-funded corporation. The Federal Prison BOX 4.2 Illustrative Guidelines: Operating Discipline for Smart Spending • f you do not need it, do not buy it. I Will buying this product or service contribute to my ability to meet/improve customer/ — client offering or maintain a safe environment? Can I use less? — Can I source it within the organization? — • nderstand if the cost and value of what you think you require is more than the minimum U or standard requirement. Will the customer/client see the value in the higher specification and pay for it? — Will the minimum still ensure a safe environment? — • P lan the use or consumption of goods and services. — Minimize inventory by buying just in time rather than just in case. — Avoid reactive or emergency purchases. — Take time to look for the best value. — Include procurement in production and maintenance planning and scheduling, in shut- down preplanning, and in capital projects. • O ptimize the buy. — Include sourcing professionals in the process. — Pay only for value-in-use. — Maximize use of standardization (generic brands). — Leverage volume for price by using converged suppliers. — Have supplier maintain inventory. — Improve payment terms as well as price. • nclude the supplier in your work simplification and improvement processes. Get align- I ment for win-win. Completely maximize the total value the supplier has to offer. SOURCE: Adapted from DuPont Company.

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53 BEST PRACTICES, TOOLS, AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR TRANSFORMATIONAL CHANGE Industries was established in 1934 by Executive Order to create voluntary real-world work programs to train federal inmates.6 Agencies regularly contract with private-sector firms to provide design and construction services for new buildings and major retrofits. The use of performance-based contracts allows agencies to set high-level goals and then challenge private-sector firms to use their creativity and knowledge of the sus- tainable practices to meet those goals. The integrated acquisition process used by NREL for its research support facility was previously described. At Fort Carson, all new major construction projects are being LEED certified through the U.S. Green Building Council. Contracts for new building construction require the design-builder to submit an implementation plan that includes the following: • An air quality plan, • A waste management plan, • A commissioning plan, • A LEED schedule, • A personnel role list, • A 500-mile radius map to show where the materials will come from, and • A narrative on how every criterion for meeting LEED requirements will be achieved. For one of its new buildings, a rating of LEED Silver was the original goal. The contractor decided to work toward additional points so that the building could be certified as LEED Gold. The contractor can now use this accomplishment—designing and building the first LEED Gold building in the U.S. Army—when competing for future work. Fort Carson’s source selection boards look for contractors with past experience in LEED projects. Fort Carson’s has four LEED-accredited professionals on staff as of FY 2011. Several potential best practices were identified in the workshop breakout sessions to address various contracting issues. One addressed the issue of time lag and project designs going stale, such that the project will not be state of the art when the ribbon is cut. In these circumstances, agencies could work with contractors through charrettes or other practices to update the designs to state-of-the-art standards before construction. A second suggestion was to make reduced operations and maintenance costs an evaluation selection criterion when soliciting proposals and selecting contractors for new and retrofit projects. In this way, contracts could help incorporate a life-cycle perspective. Additional suggestions were to create government-wide centers of excellence for business-based core contracting processes (these could be virtual) and to develop model clauses and best-practice procedures for performance- based contracts that could be used by all federal agencies. Finance With already constrained budgets and the likelihood of future cuts, federal agencies will need to leverage their available funding through public-private partnerships. Energy Savings Performance Con- tracts (ESPCs) are one type of public-private partnership that many federal agencies are already using. Approximately $2.3 billion has been invested in federal facilities through ESPCs to achieve a savings of 18 trillion Btu approximately equivalent to the energy used by a city of 500,000 people. The ESPC 6 Additional information available at www.unicor.gov.

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54 ACHIEVING HIGH-PERFORMANCE FEDERAL FACILITIES projects contain guarantees that will result in $6 billion in avoided energy costs over the life of the contracts (Kidd, 2010).7 Under such agreements, an energy service company (ESCO), such as a utility, typically conducts a comprehensive energy audit for federal facilities and identifies improvements to save energy. In consulta- tion with the agency that owns the facilities, the ESCO designs and constructs a project that meets the owner’s needs and arranges the necessary financing. It guarantees that the improvements will generate energy cost savings sufficient to pay for the project over the term of the contract. After the contract ends, all additional cost savings accrue to the owner organization.8 The use of ESPCs does have its limits. At the workshop some suggested that agencies could realize greater savings if funding were directly appropriated for this purpose so that agencies could implement the energy retrofits directly and not involve a third party. One presenter questioned whether the narrow focus of ESPCs was actually hindering the achievement of a broader range of goals. He also questioned whether the ESCOs were only choosing those projects that were the easiest to implement as opposed to those that might be more difficult and yield lower profits (Appendix I). The State Department’s Office of Overseas Buildings Operations has moved to centralized procurement of solar panels because they found it difficult to use ESPCs across countries and locations due to the great variation in local cultures and capabilities. Power purchase agreements (PPAs) are another public-private finance arrangement being used. These agreements allow an owner organization such as a federal agency to finance on-site renewable energy projects with no up-front capital costs incurred. With a PPA, a developer installs a renewable energy system on the owner organization’s property under an agreement that the organization will purchase the power generated by the system. The organization pays for the system through these power payments over the life of the contract. After installation, the developer owns, operates, and maintains the system for the life of the contract.9 At Fort Carson, a power purchase agreement with a private-sector firm that would develop a wood biomass co-generation facility on Fort Carson property is under consideration. The Front Range Energy Consortium, made up of five Air Force and Army military installations, is investigating the potential for developing a 50-megawatt concentrated solar installation at an Army chemical depot site in Pueblo, Colorado (Appendix E). NREL used a power purchase agreement for its photovoltaic arrays. To help develop a regional mobility system, staff at Fort Carson are working with local transit agen- cies and nonprofits to see how they might leverage federal employee mass transportation benefits to support new local public transportation options (Appendix E). Revolving funds were identified at the workshop as a potential financing mechanism for green projects. A specific example is Harvard University’s Green Campus Loan Fund that provides up-front capital for projects that reduce environmental impacts and have a payback period of 5 years or less (http://green.harvard.edu/loan-fund). Driving Markets Executive Order 13514 directs federal agencies to drive the market for sustainable products. An example of how this could be done was provided by the LACCD, which was able to change the market for carpeting. The LACCD hired an expert in carpets to write the specifications for a sustainable carpet that could be recycled at the end of its service life. Once the specifications were written, the LACCD 7 Additional information on ESPCs is available at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/financing/espcs.html. 8 Source: Federal Energy Management Program Web site at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/financing/espcs.html. 9 Source: Federal Energy Management Program Web site at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/financing/power_purchase_agreements.html.

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55 BEST PRACTICES, TOOLS, AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR TRANSFORMATIONAL CHANGE worked with manufacturers to develop a procurement process that would guarantee a market for the product if the manufacturers actually produced it. The carpet mills changed the way they were manufac- turing carpet. The LACCD now has a more sustainable carpet that costs 50 percent less over its life cycle, saving both capital and operational funding. And the carpet mills have a new product that is being sold on the open market for a profit (Appendix H). In the state of California, similar types of collaborative arrangements have been used to spur the manufacture of compact fluorescent lamps. Agencies can also drive markets through their leasing standards, and Executive Order 13514 includes provisions for doing this. The recent report of the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology recommended that federal agencies be given authorization to enter into ESPCs for leased facilities (PCAST, 2010). Federal agencies could also help drive the market for the continued develop- ment of BIM and other interoperable applications by requiring contractors to use these technologies for projects related to new construction or major retrofits. During the study, it was suggested that the benefits of Energy Star labeling could be increased by setting up tiers of Energy Star labels—double and triple stars—to move beyond 20 percent better than conventional standards and to establish top 10 percent and top 5 percent levels. The federal government could then drive the market by procuring only triple-star appliances and fixtures. Energy Star labeling could also be extended to other appliances and fixtures that account for major energy costs for the fed- eral sector, including flat screen monitors, vending machines, chargers, and office kitchen equipment. BEST PRACTICES, TOOLS, AND TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO COMMUNICATION AND FEEDBACK FOR BEHAVIORAL CHANGE Effective communication and feedback that help to spur cultural and behavioral change can take many forms. A range of best practices, tools, and technologies that could support such change were identified at the workshop and in presentations to the committee, as described below. Examples of Communication and Feedback for Behavioral Change Fort Carson, Colorado After involving local community leaders in the development of sustainable goals for Fort Carson, staff have continued to communicate regularly with community leaders. Annual conferences to report progress on meeting the sustainability goals have been held with the community. The garrison com- mander also hosts monthly sustainability breakfasts with Fort Carson staff and community leaders to discuss long-term goals and issues, to generate potential solutions, and to provide for long-term engage- ment in the achievement of the sustainability goals. These types of activities help to generate excitement and energy among all of the stakeholders over the long term (Appendix E). Fort Carson also provides awareness training for all soldiers and employees and competence training for managers that includes integration of sustainability performance with the installation’s strategic plans. Branding of Sustainable Initiatives, Buildings, and Products The purpose of branding is to differentiate a project, initiative, or product from others in the market and influence the consumer such that he or she will want to buy or buy into that product. Rating systems such as LEED, BREEAM, Green Globes, and Energy Star, are examples of branding that have been used to change the behavior of consumers. Two additional examples of branding identified at the workshop were the following:

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56 ACHIEVING HIGH-PERFORMANCE FEDERAL FACILITIES FIGURE 4.9 Fort Carson Logo. SOURCE: Fort Carson, Colorado. fig 4-9.eps bitmap • To better reach the 150,000 people who regularly use its installation and its 30,000 on-site personnel, the Fort Carson staff developed a logo in 2010 (Figure 4.9). The logo is used to provide consistent and modern messaging techniques and to encourage people to want to be part of the brand (Appendix E). • One of the strategies under consideration in the draft Community Energy Plan of Arlington County, Virginia, is the use of energy performance labels for buildings. An energy performance label would be available whenever a building is sold or rented. It would typically be prominently displayed in buildings regularly used by the public. Actual energy performance would be independently certified. The specific labeling approach has not yet been defined but will probably be similar to the emerging ASHRAE Energy Quotient approach,10 which in turn is an adaptation of the European Union performance labels11 (Appendix F). Evidence-Based Data To help change behaviors, facility managers need to be able to present evidence-based data (factual information based on measured results) to decision makers, operators, and occupants demonstrating that increasing funding for design and construction of a project by 1 or 2 percent can result in substantial long-term savings as well as cost avoidances. In addition to the previously cited report (Kats, 2010), at least one other detailed analysis of the economic value of the certification of green office buildings has been published by the University of California-Berkeley (Eicholtz et al., 2009). 12 The information generated through energy audits and other reporting requirements can be used to communicate with decision makers, building operators, and occupants about successes and inefficiencies and about ways to further improve efforts aimed at energy reduction or other goals. NREL Research Support Facility The NREL staff recognized that occupant behavior would be essential for the ultimate performance of the new research support facility. They established a set of guidelines for occupants that prohibit the use of individual coffee pots or space heaters. 10 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, “ASHRAE Introduces Prototype of Building Energy Label at Annual Conference,” June 22, 2009, at http://www.ashrae.org/pressroom/ detail/17194. 11 EurActiv, “Energy Performance of Buildings Directive,” September 29, 2010, at http://www.euractiv.com/en/energy-efficiency/energy- performance-buildings-directive-linksdossier-188521. 12 The paper “Doing Well by Doing Good? Green Office Buildings” is available at http://escholarship.org/uc/item/507394s4.

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57 BEST PRACTICES, TOOLS, AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR TRANSFORMATIONAL CHANGE FIGURE 4.10 Space layout at NREL research support facility. SOURCE: Department of Energy, National Re- newable Energy Laboratory. fig 4-10.eps The NREL staff also recognized that cultural change would be necessary but could be difficult to bitmap achieve. One of their biggest cultural challenges was furniture: Staff would be moving from existing offices with hard walls and private offices to a new building with lower walls and cubicles that optimize daylight. To achieve acceptance of this change on the part of staff, a test office was set up. Staff used the test office for a year and a half. Through that process, NREL staff worked with the furniture manu- facturers to improve the layout before the staff moved into the new building (Figure 4.10). Tools and Technologies to Enable Behavioral Change A variety of tools and technologies can be used to enable performance measurement, communica- tion, and behavioral change. One of these, the use of metering in buildings to better track performance, is already under way: Federal agencies are required to meter their buildings by October 1, 2012. The use of submetering, a more refined tracking of energy and water use that can be applied to multiple tenant buildings, is also being studied. Displaying real-time meter interval data at locations that are easily accessible to building occupants and the public is one way to support behavioral change, as illustrated in the following examples. Oberlin College initiated development of a campus resource monitoring system (first-of-its-kind technology) that provides students with real-time feedback on their electricity and water use in dormito- ries to engage, educate, and empower them to conserve resources. The result is an ongoing competition among students, pressure on the university to improve the energy and water performance of some of their buildings, and a measurable reduction in energy and water demands over the past 10 years. At the workshop, it was reported that some agencies have set up competitions among the occupants of different buildings or different divisions to see which ones can achieve the greatest reductions in energy use, so-called “biggest losers” programs. Reminding employees to turn off computers and other equipment and use energy-saving features could also result in reductions in energy use, which might be boosted by setting up competitions. At NREL, a variety of technologies were used to reduce and monitor energy performance in ways that were clear to occupants and helped to change their behavior (Figure 4.11).

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58 ACHIEVING HIGH-PERFORMANCE FEDERAL FACILITIES Sensor-controlled LED task lights 6 Watts 24” LCD Energy Efficient Fluorescent task lights 35 Watts Monitors 18 Watts iGo Power Smart Typical 19”-24” Monitors Towers 30-50 Watts Reduces “vampire” energy use VOIP phones 2 Watts Laptop Removing personal Space Heater 30 Watts saves 1500 Watts Desktop Computer (Energy Star) 300 Watts Multi-function Devices 100 Watts (continuous) Removing Desktop Printers Saves ~460 Watts/Printer FIGURE 4.11 Technologies used to reduce energy use and change occupant behavior. SOURCE: Jeffrey Baker, Department of fig 4-11.eps Energy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory. bitmap w vector elements