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APPROACHES FOR ECOSYSTEM SERVICES VALUATION FOR THE GULF OF MEXICO AFTER THE DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL INTERIM REPORT Committee on the Effects of the Deepwater Horizon Mississippi Canyon-252 Oil Spill on Ecosystem Services in the Gulf of Mexico Ocean Studies Board Division on Earth and Life Studies
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the coun- cils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration under contract number DG133R08CQ0062. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-21179-6 Library of Congress Catalog Card Number-10: 0-309-21179-4 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2012 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Acad- emy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding en- gineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Insti- tute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sci- ences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org
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COMMITTEE ON THE EFFECTS OF THE DEEPWATER HORIZON MISSISSIPPI CANYON-252 OIL SPILL ON ECOSYSTEM SERVICES IN THE GULF OF MEXICO LARRY A. MAYER (Chair), University of New Hampshire, Durham MICHEL C. BOUFADEL, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania JORGE BRENNER, The Nature Conservancy, Corpus Christi, Texas ROBERT S. CARNEY, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge CORTIS K. COOPER, Chevron Energy Technology Company, San Ramon, California JODY W. DEMING, University of Washington, Seattle DAVID J. DIE, University of Miami, Florida JOSH EAGLE, University of South Carolina, Columbia JOSEPH R. GERACI, University of Maryland, Baltimore BARBARA A. KNUTH, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York KENNETH LEE, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia JAMES T. MORRIS, University of South Carolina, Columbia STEPHEN POLASKY, University of Minnesota, St. Paul NANCY N. RABALAIS, Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium, Chauvin CHRISTOPHER REDDY*, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts RALPH G. STAHL, JR., DuPont Company, Wilmington, Delaware DAVID W. YOSKOWITZ, Texas A&M University, Corpus Christi Staff KIM WADDELL, Study Director SHERRIE FORREST, Associate Program Officer JEREMY JUSTICE, Senior Program Assistant (until July 15, 2011) LAUREN HARDING, Program Assistant PETER THOMPSON, Mirzayan Fellow (until May 13, 2011) CHRISTOPHER PROSSER, Mirzayan Fellow *Resigned from the committee v
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OCEAN STUDIES BOARD DONALD F. BOESCH (Chair), University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Cambridge EDWARD A. BOYLE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge JORGE E. CORREDOR, University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez KEITH R. CRIDDLE, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Juneau JODY W. DEMING, University of Washington, Seattle MARY (MISSY) H. FEELEY, ExxonMobil Exploration Company, Houston, Texas ROBERT HALLBERG, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and Princeton University, New Jersey DEBRA HERNANDEZ, Hernandez and Company, Isle of Palms, South Carolina ROBERT A. HOLMAN, Oregon State University, Corvallis KIHO KIM, American University, Washington, DC BARBARA A. KNUTH, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York ROBERT A. LAWSON, Science Applications International Corporation, San Diego, California GEORGE I. MATSUMOTO, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, California JAY S. PEARLMAN, The Boeing Company (retired), Port Angeles, Washington ANDREW A. ROSENBERG, Conservation International, Arlington, Virginia DANIEL L. RUDNICK, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California ROBERT J. SERAFIN, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado ANNE M. TREHU, Oregon State University, Corvallis PETER L. TYACK, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts DAWN J. WRIGHT, Oregon State University, Corvallis JAMES A. YODER, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts OSB Staff SUSAN ROBERTS, Director DEBORAH GLICKSON, Senior Program Officer CLAUDIA MENGELT, Senior Program Officer vi
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KIM WADDELL, Senior Program Officer SHERRIE FORREST, Associate Program Officer GRAIG MANSFIELD, Financial Associate PAMELA LEWIS, Administrative Coordinator LAUREN HARDING, Program Assistant vii
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Acknowledgments This report was greatly enhanced by the participants of the meetings held as part of this study. The committee would like to acknowledge the efforts of those who gave presentations at the committee meetings: Donald F. Boesch (University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science), Garret Graves (State of Louisiana), John Hankinson (Gulf Coast Ecosystem Restora- tion Task Force), Captain James Hanzalik (U.S. Coast Guard), Kathy Kling (Iowa State University), Jacqueline Michel (Research Planning, Inc.), Paul Montagna (Harte Research Institute, Texas A&M Corpus Christi), and Steve Picou (University of South Alabama). This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with pro- cedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in their review of this report: Peter Auster (University of Connecticut) Bruce Bayne (URS Corporation) Trudy Ann Cameron (University of Oregon) Dan Doty (Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife) Thomas Leschine (University of Washington) Daniel Magraw (Center for International Environmental Law) Jacqueline Michel (Reserarch Planning, Inc.) James Sanchirico (University of California, Davis) ix
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x ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Kathleen Segerson, Uni- versity of Connecticut, appointed by the Divison on Earth and Life Studies, and Simon Levin, Princeton University, appointed by the Report Review Committee, who were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Re- sponsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.
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Contents Summary 1 Introduction 17 1 Physiographic, Oceanographic, and Ecological Context 31 of the Gulf of Mexico 2 Approaches to Damage Assessment and Valuation of 55 Ecosystem Services 3 Methods to Establish Baselines for Gulf of Mexico 75 Ecosystem Services 4 An Ecosystem Services Approach to Damage Assessment 95 References 121 Appendixes A Committee and Staff Biographies 137 B Acronyms 149 xi
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