provide critical insights regarding the effects of the spill on benthic biota in the Gulf, particularly in the deeper waters near the blowout. In 1977 Dr. Carney earned a Ph.D. in oceanography from Oregon State University; he also earned a M.S. in oceanography from Texas A&M University in 1971 and a B.S. in zoology from Duke University in 1967.

Cortis K. Cooper currently serves as Fellow with Chevron Energy Technology Company, a position he has held since 2002. Prior to beginning his service as Fellow, Dr. Cooper was employed as Scientist/Engineer at Chevron Exploration Technology for 12 years. In this position, he was primarily tasked with quantifying winds, waves, and currents for operation and design of offshore facilities worldwide including measuring and modeling oil spill fates; modeling hurricane alleys in the Gulf of Mexico; modeling sea level in the Caspian Sea; forecasting the Loop Current and associated eddies in the Gulf of Mexico; supervising major ocean current models in the Gulf of Mexico, West Africa, Northeast Atlantic, and Northwest Australia; leading a $1.6 million, 32-company joint industry project (JIP) to improve ocean towing; and leading a $2 million, 24-company JIP to investigate the fate of oil and gas from deepwater blowouts. Dr. Cooper was a member of the 2003 National Research Council’s Committee on Oil in the Sea: Inputs, Fates, and Effects, which initiated and led a field experiment in 2000 that simulated a deepwater blowout off Norway. He has studied the physical oceanography of the Gulf of Mexico for 25 years. Dr. Cooper brings a wealth of relevant skills to the committee, but his grasp of industry standard operating procedure and his understanding of oil dispersion under various oceanographic conditions will be most useful. He earned a Ph.D. in environmental engineering from the University of Maine in 1987, and a M.Sc. and B.S. in civil engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1977 and 1975, respectively.

Jody W. Deming (NAS) holds the Walters Endowed Professorship in the University of Washington’s School of Oceanography. She has also served as Director of the University of Washington’s Marine Bioremediation Program. Dr. Deming has made major contributions to the understanding of life in deep-sea and polar environments. As a marine microbiologist, Dr. Deming has focused her research efforts on the behavior of bacteria under conditions of extreme temperatures, pressures, and salt concentrations. She has used a combination of observational, experimental, and modeling approaches to explore the role of bacteria in the flow of carbon through deep-sea ecosystems, including in the Gulf of Mexico. Dr. Deming’s expertise on marine microbial communities and their role in ecosystem functioning will



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