gram elements (upper right, Figure 3.1) also be pursuing parallel, complementary paths. In all cases, continuous interaction among the program elements must take place for the transition to be timely and successful.
The Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR), the Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, and the Propulsion and Power Directorate are the organizational entities that handle the development of new materials and their introduction into propulsion systems. The AFOSR manages the basic research investment (6.1 in Figure 3.1) and is a part of the AFRL. The AFOSR fosters and funds basic research within the AFRL, domestic universities, and industry laboratories to support USAF needs. Research managers seek to create revolutionary scientific breakthroughs, enabling the Air Force and industry to produce world-class, militarily significant, and commercially valuable products using technical guidance from the AFRL and requirements of the Air Force; research managers also ensure the transition of research results to support USAF needs.
The Materials and Manufacturing Directorate performs comprehensive research and development activities to provide the Air Force with new and improved materials, processes, and manufacturing technologies. Its activities span 6.1, 6.2, and 6.3. The directorate receives 6.1 funds from the AFOSR for intramural research and has its own 6.2 and 6.3 budget elements for materials R&D and manufacturing technology. The directorate explores new materials, processes, and manufacturing technologies for use in aerospace applications, including aircraft, spacecraft, missiles, rockets, and ground-based systems, along with their structural, electronic, and optical components. Areas of expertise in this directorate include thermal protection materials, metallic and nonmetallic structural materials, nondestructive inspection, materials used in aerospace propulsion systems, electromagnetic and electronic materials, and laser-hardened materials. The directorate provides real-time materials operating problem solutions and failure analysis, along with support to Air Force weapons system acquisition offices and maintenance depots, to solve materials-related concerns and problems. The directorate plans, executes, and integrates advanced manufacturing technology programs and affordability initiatives that address manufacturing process technologies, computer-integrated manufacturing, and excellence through design for producibility, quality, cost, and the use of commercial processes and practices for military needs. The Air Expeditionary Forces Technologies Division, located at Tyndall Air Force Base (AFB), Florida, addresses environmental issues and provides materials expertise for airbase assets such as runways and infrastructure. The directorate also manages the Air Force Corrosion Control Program Office at Robins AFB, Georgia; the Air Force