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Materials Needs and R&D Strategy for Future Military Aerospace Propulsion Systems Materials Needs and R&D Strategy for Future Military Aerospace Propulsion Systems Committee on Materials Needs and R&D Strategy for Future Military Aerospace Propulsion Systems National Materials and Manufacturing Board Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu
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Materials Needs and R&D Strategy for Future Military Aerospace Propulsion Systems THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Contract No. W911NF-08-D-0005 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Department of Defense. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-21211-3 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-21211-1 This report is available in limited quantities from National Materials and Manufacturing Board 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20001 firstname.lastname@example.org http://www.nationalacademies.edu/nmmb Additional copies of the report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, D.C. 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet: http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2011 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
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Materials Needs and R&D Strategy for Future Military Aerospace Propulsion Systems THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org
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Materials Needs and R&D Strategy for Future Military Aerospace Propulsion Systems COMMITTEE ON MATERIALS NEEDS AND R&D STRATEGY FOR FUTURE MILITARY AEROSPACE PROPULSION SYSTEMS GEORGE K. MUELLNER, The Boeing Company (retired), Chair DANIEL G. BACKMAN, Worcester Polytechnic Institute CHARLES E. BROWNING, University of Dayton WILLIAM G. FAHRENHOLTZ, Missouri University of Science and Technology WESLEY L. HARRIS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology S. MICHAEL HUDSON, Rolls-Royce North America Holdings (retired) SYLVIA M. JOHNSON, NASA Ames Research Center WILLIAM L. JOHNSON, California Institute of Technology ERIC J. JUMPER, University of Notre Dame ROBERT H. LATIFF, R. Latiff Associates JUDITH SCHNEIDER, Mississippi State University Staff ERIK B. SVEDBERG, Study Director RICKY D. WASHINGTON, Executive Assistant TERI THOROWGOOD, Administrative Coordinator (until December 2009) LAURA TOTH, Program Assistant
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Materials Needs and R&D Strategy for Future Military Aerospace Propulsion Systems NATIONAL MATERIALS AND MANUFACTURING BOARD ROBERT H. LATIFF, R. Latiff Associates, Chair DENISE F. SWINK, Independent Consultant, Vice Chair PETER R. BRIDENBAUGH, Alcoa, Inc. (retired) VALERIE BROWNING, ValTech Solutions, LLC YET MING CHIANG, Massachusetts Institute of Technology PAUL CITRON, Medtronic, Inc. (retired) GEORGE T. GRAY III, Los Alamos National Laboratory CAROL A. HANDWERKER, Purdue University THOMAS S. HARTWICK, Independent Consultant SUNDARESAN JAYARAMAN, Georgia Institute of Technology DAVID W. JOHNSON, JR., Stevens Institute of Technology TOM KING, Oak Ridge National Laboratory MICHAEL F. McGRATH, Analytic Services, Inc. NABIL NASR, Rochester Institute of Technology PAUL S. PEERCY, University of Wisconsin-Madison ROBERT C. PFAHL, JR., International Electronics Manufacturing Initiative VINCENT J. RUSSO, Aerospace Technologies Associates, LLC KENNETH H. SANDHAGE, Georgia Institute of Technology ROBERT E. SCHAFRIK, GE Aviation HAYDN WADLEY, University of Virginia STEVEN WAX, Strategic Analysis, Inc. Staff DENNIS CHAMOT, Acting Director (as of April 2010) GARY FISCHMAN, Director (until April 2010) ERIK SVEDBERG, Senior Program Officer RICKY D. WASHINGTON, Executive Assistant HEATHER LOZOWSKI, Financial Associate LAURA TOTH, Program Assistant TERI THOROWGOOD, Administrative Coordinator (until December 2009)
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Materials Needs and R&D Strategy for Future Military Aerospace Propulsion Systems Preface Significant advances in the performance and efficiency of jet and rocket propulsion systems are strongly dependent on the development of lighter, more durable high-temperature materials. Materials development has been significantly reduced in the United States since the early 1990s, when the Department of Defense (DOD), the military services, and industry had very active materials development activities to underpin the development of new propulsion systems. This resulted in significant improvements in all engine characteristics and established the United States at the leading edge of global propulsion technology. In 2006, a study from the National Research Council (NRC) titled A Review of United States Air Force and Department of Defense Aerospace Propulsion Needs identified the need for technology advances in high-speed turbine engines, ram/scramjet/pulse detonation engines, rocket propulsion, combined cycle engines, and ultra-efficient propulsion to meet future military needs.1 Each of the identified needs requires advances in propulsion technology, and those advances are strongly dependent on materials development activities. The DOD, the sponsor of the present study, thus identified the following tasks to be carried out by the present study committee (see Appendix A for the complete statement of task): Examine whether current and planned U.S. research and development efforts in materials for aerospace propulsion are sufficient (a) to meet U.S. military needs and (b) to keep the U.S. on the leading edge of propulsion technology. 1 National Research Council. 2006. A Review of United States Air Force and Department of Defense Aerospace Propulsion Needs. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press.
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Materials Needs and R&D Strategy for Future Military Aerospace Propulsion Systems Consider mechanisms for the timely insertion of materials in propulsion systems and, if necessary, how these mechanisms might be improved. Consider mechanisms in place that retain intellectual property (IP) securely and how IP might be secured in future R&D programs. Describe the general elements of an R&D strategy to develop materials for future military aerospace propulsion systems. To accomplish this study, the National Research Council established the Committee on Military Needs and R&D Strategy for Future Military Aerospace Propulsion Systems (see Appendix C for biographies of the committee members). The committee visited and received presentations from the sponsor, government research agencies, major propulsion companies, university researchers, and the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Materials Technical Committee, which covers the propulsion and materials science domains. In addition, the committee was provided the document titled Materials for Advanced Aerospace Propulsion and Power Systems (AFRL-RZ-WP-TM-2008-2171). Restricted by the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR), that document contains the current plan for materials development within the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) and was used as the baseline for current planned R&D efforts within the DOD. Owing to the restricted nature of that AFRL baseline document, the committee’s specific assessment of current and planned U.S. R&D efforts in mate rials for aerospace propulsion is presented in an ITAR-restricted appendix (Appendix D), the text of which is not releasable to the public. My personal thanks go to all of the members of the committee for their commitment of considerable time and energy. I am particularly grateful to Mike Hudson, Eric Jumper, Bob Latiff, Wesley Harris, and Sylvia Johnson for leading major segments of the study. The committee is also very grateful to Erik Svedberg, the study director, and to Teri Thorowgood, the administrative coordinator until December 2009, for guiding us through the study process. Erik Svedberg not only steered the committee but also provided valuable research contributions. The committee hopes that this report will increase the efficiency, level of effort, and impact of DOD materials development activities. Budgetary restrictions demand increased collaboration and focus, as significant improvements in the performance and efficiency of U.S. military aerospace propulsion systems are both possible and needed. George K. Muellner, Chair Committee on Materials Needs and R&D Strategy for Future Military Aerospace Propulsion Systems
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Materials Needs and R&D Strategy for Future Military Aerospace Propulsion Systems Acknowledgments This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Meyer J. Benzakein, Ohio State University, Dianne Chong, The Boeing Company, David E. Crow, University of Connecticut, Alan Epstein, Pratt & Whitney, Diana Farkas, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Bernard L. Koff, Pratt & Whitney (retired), James E. McGrath, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Carolyn W. Meyers, Norfolk State University, and Charles F. Tiffany, The Boeing Company (retired). Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The
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Materials Needs and R&D Strategy for Future Military Aerospace Propulsion Systems review of this report was overseen by Hyla Napadensky, retired vice president, Napadensky Energetics, Inc. Appointed by the NRC, she was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. The committee also thanks its guest speakers, who added to the members’ under standing of the materials issues related to future aerospace propulsion systems: Joni Arnold, Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), Drew DeGeorge, Edwards Air Force Base, Kenneth Eickmann, University of Texas at Austin, Joan Fuller, Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR), William Hack, AFRL, John Halchak, Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne, Dallis Hardwick, AFRL, Clay Haubert, GE Aviation, Joseph Koo, University of Texas at Austin, Ajay Misra, NASA Glenn Research Center, Francis Preli, Pratt & Whitney, Tom Russel1, AFOSR, David Schifler, Office of Naval Research, Jack Schirra, Pratt & Whitney, Charlie Stevens, AFRL, Kathy Stevens, AFRL, Art Temmesfeld, AFRL, Malcolm Thomas, Rolls-Royce Group, and Charles Ward, AFRL.
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Materials Needs and R&D Strategy for Future Military Aerospace Propulsion Systems Contents SUMMARY 1 1 INTRODUCTION 9 1.1 Background, 9 1.2 Future Military Aerospace Propulsion Needs, 10 1.3 Statement of Task, 11 1.4 Methodology, 12 2 MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT: THE PROCESS 13 2.1 Introduction, 13 2.2 Technology Readiness Levels and Research and Development Funding, 15 2.3 The Role of Materials in the Advancement of Propulsion Technology, 20 2.4 The Notional Development Process for Propulsion Materials from Idea to Insertion, 22 2.5 The Historical Materials Development Process: How It Has Actually Worked, 23 2.6 The Evolving Materials Development Process, 35 2.7 The Role of Large Programs in the Development of Materials and Processes, 38 2.8 Common Themes for Successful Materials Development, 44 2.9 Evolution of Materials Programs at U.S. Universities, 49
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Materials Needs and R&D Strategy for Future Military Aerospace Propulsion Systems 2.10 Propulsion Materials Research Support from the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, 60 2.11 Findings, 64 3 MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT ASSESSMENT 68 3.1 Development Process for Structural Materials Research and Development, 68 3.2 Organizational Entities of the Air Force Research Laboratory, 71 3.3 Materials Research and Databases, 80 3.4 Materials Contribution to Current and Emerging Propulsion Systems, 89 3.5 Global Competitiveness, 101 3.6 The Plan, 108 3.7 Findings, 115 3.8 Recommendations, 117 4 INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY AND EXPORT CONTROL 118 4.1 Collaborative Materials Development and Intellectual Property, 119 4.2 Globalization, 122 4.3 Critical Engine Materials, 122 4.4 Collaboration and Intellectual Property, 124 4.5 Intellectual Property Protection Mechanisms, 129 5 ELEMENTS OF AN EFFECTIVE R&D STRATEGY 131 5.1 Introduction, 131 5.2 Elements of an Effective Strategy, 133 5.3 Risk Management, 142 5.4 Recommendations, 143 APPENDIXES A Statement of Task 147 B The Leading Edge in Aerospace Propulsion 149 C Biographies of Committee Members 180 D ITAR-Restricted Analysis of the Plan1 187 E Materials Development Case Studies 188 F Acronyms 198 1 Note that the text of Appendix D is not releasable to the public under ITAR.