Appendix E

Forum Member Biographies

David A. Relman, M.D. (Chair), is the Thomas C. and Joan M. Merigan Professor in the Departments of Medicine and of Microbiology and Immunology at Stanford University, and Chief of Infectious Diseases at the VA Palo Alto Health Care System in Palo Alto, California. He received an S.B. (biology) from Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1977), received his M.D. (magna cum laude) from Harvard Medical School (1982), completed his clinical training in internal medicine and infectious diseases at Massachusetts General Hospital, served as a postdoctoral fellow in microbiology at Stanford University, and joined the faculty at Stanford in 1994.

Dr. Relman’s current research focus is the human indigenous microbiota (microbiome) and, in particular, the nature and mechanisms of variation in patterns of microbial diversity within the human body as a function of time (microbial succession), space (biogeography within the host landscape), and in response to perturbation, for example, antibiotics (community robustness and resilience). One of the goals of this work is to define the role of the human microbiome in health and disease. This research integrates theory and methods from ecology, population biology, environmental microbiology, genomics, and clinical medicine. During the past few decades, his research directions have also included pathogen discovery and the development of new strategies for identifying previously unrecognized microbial agents of disease. This work helped to spearhead the application of molecular methods to the diagnosis of infectious diseases in the 1990s. His research has emphasized the use of genomic approaches for exploring host–microbe relationships. Past scientific achievements include the description of a novel approach for identifying previously unknown pathogens; the identification of a number of new human microbial pathogens, including the agent of



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Appendix E Forum Member Biographies David A. Relman, M.D. (Chair), is the Thomas C. and Joan M. Merigan Pro- fessor in the Departments of Medicine and of Microbiology and Immunology at Stanford University, and Chief of Infectious Diseases at the VA Palo Alto Health Care System in Palo Alto, California. He received an S.B. (biology) from Mas- sachusetts Institute of Technology (1977), received his M.D. (magna cum laude) from Harvard Medical School (1982), completed his clinical training in internal medicine and infectious diseases at Massachusetts General Hospital, served as a postdoctoral fellow in microbiology at Stanford University, and joined the faculty at Stanford in 1994. Dr. Relman’s current research focus is the human indigenous microbiota (mi- crobiome) and, in particular, the nature and mechanisms of variation in pat terns of microbial diversity within the human body as a function of time (micro bial succession), space (biogeography within the host landscape), and in response to perturbation, for example, antibiotics (community robustness and resilience). One of the goals of this work is to define the role of the human microbiome in health and disease. This research integrates theory and methods from ecology, popu- lation biology, environmental microbiology, genomics, and clinical medicine. During the past few decades, his research directions have also included patho- gen discovery and the development of new strategies for identifying previously unrecognized microbial agents of disease. This work helped to spearhead the application of molecular methods to the diagnosis of infectious diseases in the 1990s. His research has emphasized the use of genomic approaches for exploring host–microbe relationships. Past scientific achievements include the description of a novel approach for identifying previously unknown pathogens; the identi- fication of a number of new human microbial pathogens, including the agent of 427

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428 FUNGAL DISEASES Whipple’s disease; and some of the most extensive and revealing analyses to date of the human indigenous microbial ecosystem. Dr. Relman advises the U.S. government, as well as nongovernmental organi- zations, in matters pertaining to microbiology, emerging infectious diseases, and biosecurity. He is a member of the National Science Advisory Board for Biosecu- rity, a member of the Physical and Life Sciences Directorate Review Commit - tee for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and he advises several U.S. government departments and agencies on matters related to pathogen diversity, the future life sciences landscape, and the nature of present and future biological threats. He has served as Chair of the Board of Scientific Counselors of the Na - tional Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (National Institutes of Health [NIH]) and as a member of the Board of Directors, Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). Dr. Relman is currently vice-chair of a National Academy of Sciences (NAS) study of the science underlying the Federal Bureau of Investiga- tion investigation of the 2001 anthrax mailings, and he cochaired a 3-year NAS study that produced a widely cited report entitled Globalization, Biosecurity, and the Future of the Life Sciences (2006). He is a Fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology and a member of the Association of American Physicians. Dr. Relman received the Squibb Award from the IDSA in 2001 and was the recipient of both the NIH Director’s Pioneer Award and the Distinguished Clinical Scientist Award from the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation in 2006. James M. Hughes, M.D. (Vice-Chair), is professor of medicine and public health at Emory University’s School of Medicine and Rollins School of Public Health, serving as director of the Emory Program in Global Infectious Diseases, executive director of the Southeastern Center for Emerging Biologic Threats, and senior advisor to the Emory Center for Global Safe Water. He is the senior sci- entific advisor for infectious diseases to the International Association of National Public Health Institutes funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Prior to joining Emory in June 2005, Dr. Hughes served as director of the National Center for Infectious Diseases (NCID) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Dr. Hughes received his B.A. and M.D. degrees from Stan - ford University and completed postgraduate training in internal medicine at the University of Washington, infectious diseases at the University of Virginia, and preventive medicine at CDC. After joining CDC as an Epidemic Intelligence Ser- vice officer in 1973, Dr. Hughes worked initially on foodborne and water-related diseases and subsequently on infection control in health care settings. He served as director of CDC’s Hospital Infections Program from 1983 to 1988, as deputy director of NCID from 1988 to 1992, and as director of NCID from 1992 to 2005. A major focus of Dr. Hughes’ career is on building partnerships among the clini - cal, research, public health, and veterinary communities to prevent, detect, and respond to infectious diseases at the local, national and global levels. His research interests include emerging and reemerging infectious diseases, antimicrobial

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429 APPENDIX E resistance, foodborne diseases, health care–associated infections, vectorborne and zoonotic diseases, rapid detection of and response to infectious diseases and bioterrorism, strengthening public health capacity at the local, national, and global levels, and prevention of water-related diseases in the developing world. Dr. Hughes is a fellow and Council Delegate of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, fellow of the American College of Physicians and the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), President of IDSA, Councilor of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, and member of the International Board of the American Society for Microbiology. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine. Lonnie J. King, D.V.M. (Vice-Chair), is the 10th dean of the College of Veteri- nary Medicine at the Ohio State University (OSU). In addition to leading this college, Dr. King is also a professor of preventive medicine and holds the Ruth Stanton Endowed Chair in Veterinary Medicine. Before becoming dean at OSU, he was the director of CDC’s new National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED). In this new position, Dr. King leads the Cen- ter’s activities for surveillance, diagnostics, disease investigations, epidemiol - ogy, research, public education, policy development, and disease prevention and control programs. NCZVED also focuses on waterborne, foodborne, vectorborne, and zoonotic diseases of public health concern, which also include most of CDC’s select and bioterrorism agents, neglected tropical diseases, and emerging zoono - ses. Before serving as director, he was the first chief of the agency’s Office of Strategy and Innovation. Dr. King served as dean of the College of Veterinary Medicine, Michigan State University, from 1996 to 2006. As at OSU, he served as the CEO for aca- demic programs, research, the teaching hospital, the diagnostic center for popula- tion and animal health, basic and clinical science departments, and the outreach and continuing education programs. As dean and professor of large-animal clini - cal sciences, Dr. King was instrumental in obtaining funds for the construction of a $60 million Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health; he initi - ated the Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases in the college, he served as the campus leader in food safety, and he had oversight for the National Food Safety and Toxicology Center. In 1992, Dr. King was appointed administrator for the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), in Washington, DC. In this role, he provided executive leadership and direction for ensuring the health and care of animals and plants, to improve agricultural productivity and competitiveness, and to contribute to the national economy and public health. Dr. King also served as the country’s chief veterinary officer for 5 years, worked extensively in global trade agreements within the North American Free Trade Agreement and the World Trade Organization, and worked extensively with the World Animal Health Association. During this time he was the Deputy

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430 FUNGAL DISEASES Administrator for Veterinary Services of APHIS, USDA, where he led national efforts in disease eradication, imports and exports, and diagnostics in both Ames, Iowa, and Plum Island. He spent 5 years in Hyattsville, Maryland, in staff assign- ments in Emergency Programs, as well as Animal Health Information. While in Hyattsville, Dr. King directed the development of the agency’s National Animal Health Monitoring System. He left APHIS briefly to serve as the director of the Governmental Relations Division of the American Veterinary Medical Associa - tion (AVMA) in Washington, DC, and served as the lobbyist for the AVMA on Capitol Hill. Dr. King was in private veterinary practice for 7 years in Dayton, Ohio, and Atlanta, Georgia. As a native of Wooster, Ohio, Dr. King received his bachelor of science and doctor of veterinary medicine degrees from OSU in 1966 and 1970, respectively. He earned his master of science degree in epidemiology from the University of Minnesota and received his master’s degree in public administra- tion from American University in Washington, DC, in 1991. Dr. King is a board- certified member of the American College of Veterinary Preventive Medicine and has completed the Senior Executive Fellowship program at Harvard University. He served as president of the Association of American Veterinary Medical Col- leges from 1999 to 2000 and was the vice-chair for the National Commission on Veterinary Economic Issues from 2000 to 2004. He has served on four NAS committees, including chairing the National Academies’ Committee on Assess- ing the Nation’s Framework for Addressing Animal Diseases. He is also Chair of the IOM Committee on Lyme Disease and Other Tick-Borne Diseases and for State of the Science, and he is also chairing the AVMA’s Commission for AVMA Vision 2020. Dr. King is currently a member of the IOM Committee on Microbial Threats to Health, is a past member of the Food and Drug Administra - tion’s (FDA’s) Board of Scientific Advisors, and is past president of the Ameri - can Veterinary Epidemiology Society. He served as the chair for the national One Medicine Task Force for the AVMA, which helped start the country’s One Health Initiative. Dr. King was elected as a member of the IOM of the National Academies in 2004. Kevin Anderson, Ph.D., serves as a Senior Program Manager in the Depart- ment of Homeland Security’s Science and Technology Directorate, providing oversight and requirements for science programs focused on rapid detection and characterization of biological agents. Since joining DHS in 2003, Dr. Anderson has provided leadership for science program development, laboratory design and strategic planning, served as a subject matter expert and advisor to the Bioter- rorism Risk Assessment and Biological Threat Characterization programs, and has participated in interagency working groups and assessments which provide guidance to medical countermeasure development, a key component of the na - tion’s biodefense strategy. Prior to joining DHS, Dr. Anderson was a Principal Investigator at the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases,

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431 APPENDIX E leading research focused on understanding basic mechanisms of viral diseases causing hemorrhagic fever and development of medical countermeasures. He received postdoctoral training in molecular virology at the University of Alabama at Birmingham and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, performing basic research on human respiratory syncytial viruses, and earned Ph.D. and B.S. degrees in microbiology from Montana State University and the University of Maryland, College Park, respectively. Ruth L. Berkelman, M.D., is the Rollins Professor and director of the Center for Public Health Preparedness and Research at the Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, in Atlanta. She received her A.B. from Princeton University and her M.D. from Harvard Medical School. Board certified in pediatrics and internal medicine, she began her career at CDC in 1980 and later became deputy director of NCID. She also served as a senior advisor to the director of CDC and as assistant surgeon general in the U.S. Public Health Service. In 2001 she came to her current position at Emory University, directing a center focused on emerg- ing infectious diseases and other urgent threats to health, including terrorism. She has also consulted with the biologic program of the Nuclear Threat Initiative and is most recognized for her work in infectious diseases and disease surveillance. She was elected to the IOM in 2004. Currently a member of the Board on Life Sciences of the National Academies, she also chairs the Board of Public and Scientific Affairs at the ASM. David L. Blazes, M.D., M.P.H.,1 Commander David L. Blazes is the Chief of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (GEIS) Division at the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center in Silver Spring, Maryland. From 2004–2008, he was Director of the Emerging Infections Department at the Naval Medical Research Center Detachment (now NAMRU-6) in Lima, Peru. The AFHSC-GEIS network identified the first cases of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic as well as numerous other emerging infections that threaten public health around the world. He also serves on the faculty at the Uniformed Services University in Bethesda, Maryland and in International Health at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. He graduated from the U.S. Naval Academy in 1991 and the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in 1995 and completed his internal medicine and infectious diseases training at the National Naval Medi - cal Center, the President’s hospital in Bethesda. His main scientific interests are infectious diseases surveillance strategies in developing settings, optimizing out - break response, public health capacity building and tropical medicine training. He has taught clinical tropical medicine at the Gorgas course within Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, at the Johns Hopkins Summer Institute of Tropical Medicine and at the U.S. Military Tropical Medicine course in Bethesda. 1 Forum member since September 1, 2011.

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432 FUNGAL DISEASES Enriqueta C. Bond, Ph.D., is president emeritus of the Burroughs Wellcome Fund. Dr. Bond is currently a partner in QE Philanthropic Advisors, LLC, an organization that provides consulting services to foundations and non-profits on matters of program, strategic planning and capacity development related to medical sciences, international health, and science and math K–12 education. She received her undergraduate degree from Wellesley College, her M.A. from the University of Virginia, and her Ph.D. in molecular biology and biochemical ge - netics from Georgetown University. She is a member of the IOM and a fellow of the AAAS. Dr. Bond chairs the Academies’ Board on African Science Academy Development and serves on the NRC Committee on the Future of the Research University. She serves on the board and executive committee of the Hamner Insti - tute, the board of the Health Effects Institute, the board of the James B. Hunt Jr. Institute for Educational Leadership and Policy, and the NIH Council of Councils. In addition Dr. Bond serves on a scientific advisory committee for the World Health Organization (WHO) Tropical Disease Research Program. Prior to being named president of the Burroughs Wellcome Fund in 1994, Dr. Bond served on the staff of the IOM beginning in 1979, becoming its executive officer in 1989. Roger G. Breeze, BVMS, Ph.D., MRCVS, is currently Bio-Security Deputy Program Director, Global Security Directorate, Office of Strategic Outcomes, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and serves on the senior manage- ment team of the Defense Threat Reduction Agency’s Chemical and Biological Defense Directorate. He received his veterinary degree in 1968 and his Ph.D. in veterinary pathology in 1973, both from the University of Glasgow, Scotland. He was engaged in teaching, diagnostic pathology, and research on respiratory and cardiovascular diseases at the University of Glasgow Veterinary School from 1968 to 1977 and at Washington State University College of Veterinary Medi- cine from 1977 to 1987, where he was professor and chair of the Department of Microbiology and Pathology. From 1984 to 1987 he was deputy director of the Washington Technology Center, the state’s high-technology sciences initiative, based in the College of Engineering at the University of Washington. In 1987, he was appointed director of the USDA’s Plum Island Animal Disease Center, a Biosafety Level 3 (BSL-3) facility for research and diagnosis of the world’s most dangerous livestock diseases. In that role he initiated research into the genomic and functional genomic basis of disease pathogenesis, diagnosis, and control of livestock RNA and DNA virus infections. This work became the basis of U.S. defense against natural and deliberate infection with these agents and led to his involvement in the early 1990s in biological weapons defense and proliferation prevention. From 1995 to 1998, he was South Atlantic area director for USDA’s Agricultural Research Service before going to Washington, DC, to establish biological weapons defense programs for USDA. He received the Distinguished Executive Award from President Clinton in 1998 for his work at Plum Island and in biodefense. Since 2004 he has been CEO of Centaur Science group where

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433 APPENDIX E his main commitment was to the Defense Threat Reduction Agency’s Global Bioengagement Program. Steven J. Brickner, Ph.D.,2 is an independent consultant based in southeastern Connecticut. He received his Ph.D. in organic chemistry from Cornell University and completed an NIH postdoctoral research fellowship at the University of Wis - consin, Madison. Dr. Brickner is a synthetic organic/medicinal chemist with more than 25 years of research experience focused entirely on the discovery of novel antibacterial agents during his prior tenure at Upjohn, Pharmacia & Upjohn, and Pfizer. He is co-inventor of Zyvox® (linezolid), an oxazolidinone recognized as the first member of an entirely new class of antibiotic to reach the market in the more than 35 years since the discovery of the first quinolone. Approved in 2000, linezolid has annual worldwide sales of more than US$1 billion. He initiated the oxazolidinone research program at Upjohn and led the team that discovered linezolid and clinical candidates eperezolid and PNU-100480. While at Pfizer, he led the early development team that placed the oxazolidinone PNU-100480 into clinical trials, where it is being studied as a potential treatment for tuberculosis. Dr. Brickner received an honorary doctor of science degree from the University of Notre Dame in 2010, and he was a corecipient of the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America 2007 Discoverers Award and the 2007 American Chemical Society Award for Team Innovation. He was named the 2002–2003 Outstanding Alumni Lecturer, College of Arts and Science, Miami University (Ohio). He is an inventor or co-inventor on 21 U.S. patents, has published more than 30 peer-reviewed scientific papers, and has given 25 invited speaker pre- sentations; he has been a member of the IOM Forum on Microbial Threats since 1997. In February 2009, he established SJ Brickner Consulting, LLC, which serves various clients in offering consulting services on all aspects of medicinal chemistry and drug design related to the discovery and development of new antibiotics. Paula R. Bryant, Ph.D., is Chief of the Medical S&T Division, Chemical and Biological Defense Program at the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) in Fort Belvoir, Virginia. As the Chief of the Medical S&T Division, Bryant inter- faces with all levels of the Department of Defense and DTRA to plan, coordinate, integrate, and execute program activities necessary to provide timely and effective medical countermeasures against Chemical, Biological and Radiological (CBR) threats to U.S. interests worldwide. She also served as a Senior Scientist and Se - nior S&T Manager while at DTRA. Prior to joining DTRA, she was an Assistant Professor in the Department of Microbiology at The Ohio State University. She received her Ph.D. in Microbiology and Immunology from the Baylor College of Medicine. 2 Forum member until December 31, 2010.

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434 FUNGAL DISEASES John E. Burris, Ph.D., became president of the Burroughs Wellcome Fund in July 2008. He is the former president of Beloit College. Prior to his appoint- ment at Beloit in 2000, Dr. Burris served for 8 years as director and CEO of the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts. From 1984 to 1992 he was at the National Research Council/National Academies, where he served as the executive director of the Commission on Life Sciences. A native of Wisconsin, he received an A.B. in biology from Harvard University in 1971, attended the University of Wisconsin, Madison, in an M.D.-Ph.D. program, and received a Ph.D. in marine biology from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California, San Diego, in 1976. A professor of biology at the Pennsylvania State University from 1976 to 1985, he held an adjunct appointment there until going to Beloit. His research interests are in the areas of marine and terrestrial plant physiology and ecology. He has served as president of the Ameri- can Institute of Biological Sciences and is or has been a member of a number of distinguished scientific boards and advisory committees, including the Grass Foundation; the Stazione Zoologica “Anton Dohrn” in Naples, Italy; the AAAS; and the Radiation Effects Research Foundation in Hiroshima, Japan. He has also served as a consultant to the National Conference of Catholic Bishops’ Commit- tee on Science and Human Values. Arturo Casadevall, M.D., Ph.D.,3 is the Leo and Julia Forchheimer Professor of Microbiology & Immunology at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University in the Bronx, New York. He is Chairman of the Department of Microbiology and Immunology and served as Director of the Division of Infec- tious Diseases at the Montefiore Medical Center at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine from 2000–2006. Dr Casadevall received both his M.D. and Ph.D. (biochemistry) degrees from New York University in New York, New York. Sub- sequently, he completed internship and residency in internal medicine at Bellevue Hospital in New York, New York. Later he completed subspecialty training in Infectious Diseases at the Montefiore Medical Center and Albert Einstein College of Medicine. Dr. Casadevall major research interests are in fungal pathogenesis and the mechanism of antibody action. In the area of Biodefense Dr. Casade- vall has an active research program to understand the mechanisms of antibody- mediated neutralization of Bacillus anthracis toxins. He has authored over 500 scientific papers. Dr. Casadevall was elected to membership in the American Society for Clinical Investigation, the American Academy of Physicians, and the American Academy of Microbiology. He was elected a fellow of the American Academy for the Advancement of Science and has received numerous honors including the Solomon A Berson Medical Alumni Achievement Award in Basic Science from the NYU School of Medicine, the Maxwell L. Littman Award 3 Forum member since September 1, 2011.

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435 APPENDIX E (mycology award), the Rhoda Benham Award from Medical Mycology Society of America, and the Kass Lecture of the Infectious Disease Society of America. Dr. Casadevall is the Editor in Chief of mBio, the first open access general jour- nal of the American Society of Microbiology. He serves in the editorial board of the Journal of Clinical Investigation, The Journal of Experimental Medicine and The Journal of Infectious Diseases. Previously he served as Editor of Infection and Immunity. He has served in numerous NIH committees including those that drafted the NIAID Strategic Plan and the Blue Ribbon Panel on Biodefense Re - search. Dr. Casadevall served on the NAS committee that reviewed the science behind the FBI investigation of the anthrax attacks in 2001. He is currently a member of the National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity and co-chaired the NIAID Board of Scientific counselors. Since he joined the Einstein faculty in 1992 Dr. Casadevall has mentored dozens of graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and junior faculty. Many of his trainees have gone on to have highly successful careers in science and several have currently AECOM faculty. From 2000–2006 Dr. Casadevall was director of the Division of Infectious Diseases at AECOM-Montefiore and oversaw the expansion of its research program. In 2001 Dr. Casadevall received the Samuel M. Rosen outstanding teacher award and in 2008 he was recognized the American Society of Microbiology with the William Hinton Award for mentoring scientists from underrepresented groups. Peter Daszak, Ph.D., is President of EcoHealth Alliance (formerly Wildlife Trust), a U.S.-based organization which conducts research and field programs on global health and conservation. At Wildlife Trust, Dr. Daszak manages a head - quarters staff of 35 and a global staff of more than 700 which conducts research and manages initiatives to prevent emerging pandemics and conserve wildlife biodiversity. This includes research on zoonoses that spill over from wildlife in emerging disease “hotspots,” including influenza, Nipah virus, SARS, West Nile virus, and others. Dr. Daszak’s work includes identifying the first case of a spe - cies extinction due to disease, the discovery of chytridiomycosis, the major cause of global amphibian declines, publishing the first paper to highlight emerging diseases of wildlife, coining the term “pathogen pollution,” discovery of the bat origin of SARS-like coronaviruses, identifying the drivers of Nipah and Hendra virus emergence, and producing the first ever emerging disease “hotspots” map. Dr. Daszak is a member of the Council of Advisors of the One Health Com- mission, Treasurer of DIVERSITAS (ICSU), past member of the International Standing Advisory Board of the Australian Biosecurity CRC, past member of the IOM Committee on Global Surveillance for Emerging Zoonoses and the Na - tional Research Council (NRC) committee on the future of veterinary research. He is Editor-in-Chief of the Springer journal Ecohealth, and past treasurer and a founding director of the International Ecohealth Association. In 2000, he won the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation medal for col -

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436 FUNGAL DISEASES laborative research in the discovery of amphibian chytridiomycosis. He has pub - lished over 130 scientific papers and book chapters, including papers in Science, Nature, PNAS, The Lancet, PLoS Biology, and other leading journals. His work has been the focus of articles in the New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, The Economist, The Washington Post, US News & World Report, CBS 60 Minutes, CNN, ABC, NPR’s Talk of the Nation, and Morning Edition & Fresh Air with Terri Gross. He is a former guest worker at the CDC, where he assisted in the pathol - ogy activity during the 1999 Nipah virus outbreak. His work is funded by the John E. Fogarty International Center of NIH, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), the National Science Foundation (NSF), the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), Google.org, Rockefeller, and other foundations. To date, his group is one of the few to have been awarded three prestigious NIH/NSF Ecology of Infectious Disease awards and is one of four partners to share a recent multi-million-dollar award from USAID (“PREDICT”) with the goal of predicting and preventing the next emerging zoonotic disease. Jeffrey Scott Duchin, M.D., is Chief of the Communicable Disease Epide- miology & Immunization Section for Public Health–Seattle & King County, Washington, and Professor of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases and Adjunct Professor in the School of Public Health and Community Medicine at the University of Washington. Dr. Duchin trained in internal medicine at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital. He completed a fellowship in general internal medicine and emergency medicine at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania and infectious disease subspecialty training at the University of Washington. After several years on the faculty at the University of Pennsylvania, he joined the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) Epidemic Intelligence Service program where he was assigned to the National Center for Infectious Diseases, and the CDC’s Preventive Medicine Residency program. He worked for CDC as a medical epi - demiologist in the Divisions of Tuberculosis Elimination and HIV/AIDS Special Studies Branch before assuming his current position. Dr. Duchin is a member of the Institute of Medicine’s (IOM’s) Forum on Medical and Public Health Preparedness for Catastrophic Events and a current member of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Advisory Commit- tee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). He is a Fellow of the Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) and of the American College of Physicians; a member of the IDSA’s National and Global Public Health Committee and Pandemic In- fluenza Task Force; and is past-Chair of the IDSA’s Bioemergencies Task Force. Dr. Duchin serves on the Editorial Board and Technical Advisory Group for Communicable Disease Alert and Response to Mass Gatherings for the World Health Organization and previously served as a member of the Department of Health and Human Services 2004 Tiger Team consulting with the Government of Greece on health preparations for the 2004 Olympics, in Athens, Greece.

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437 APPENDIX E Dr. Duchin’s peer review publications and research interests focus on communi - cable diseases of public health significance, and he has authored text book chap - ters on the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS, bioterrorism, and outbreak investigations. Jonathan Eisen, Ph.D., is a professor at the Genome Center at the University of California (UC), Davis, and holds appointments in the Department of Evolution and Ecology in the College of Biological Sciences and Medical Microbiology and Immunology in the School of Medicine. His research focuses on the mechanisms underlying the origin of novelty (how new processes and functions originate). Most of his work involves the use of high-throughput DNA sequencing methods to characterize microbes and then the use and development of computational methods to analyze this type of data. In particular, his computational work has focused on integrating evolutionary analysis with genome analysis—so-called phylogenomics. Previously, he applied this phylogenomic approach to cultured organisms, such as those from extreme environments and those with key properties as they relate to evolution or global climate cycles. Currently he is using sequencing and phylogenomic methods to study microbes directly in their natural habitats (i.e., without culturing). In par- ticular he focuses on how communities of microbes interact with each other or with plant and animal hosts to create new functions. Dr. Eisen is also coordinating one of the largest microbial genome sequencing projects to date—the “Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea” being done at the Department of Energy (DOE) Joint Genome Institute, where he holds an Adjunct Appointment. In addition to his research, Dr. Eisen is also a vocal advocate for “open access” to scientific publications and is the Academic Editor-in-Chief of PLoS Biology. He is also an active and award-winning blogger/microblogger (e.g., http://phylogenomics.blogspot.com, http://twitter.com/phylogenomics). Prior to moving to UC Davis he was on the faculty of The Institute for Genomic Research (TIGR) in Rockville, Maryland. He earned his Ph.D. in biological sciences from Stanford University, where he worked on the evolution of DNA repair processes in the lab of Philip C. Hanawalt and his undergraduate degree in biology from Harvard College. Mark B. Feinberg, M.D., Ph.D., is vice president for medical affairs and policy in global vaccine and infectious diseases at Merck & Co., Inc., and is responsible for global efforts to implement vaccines to achieve the greatest health benefits, including efforts to expand access to new vaccines in the developing world. Dr. Feinberg received a bachelor’s degree magna cum laude from the University of Pennsylvania in 1978 and his M.D. and Ph.D. degrees from Stanford University School of Medicine in 1987. His Ph.D. research at Stanford was supervised by Dr. Irving Weissman and included time spent studying the molecular biology of the human retroviruses—human T-cell lymphotrophic virus, type I (HTLV-I) and HIV—as a visiting scientist in the laboratory of Dr. Robert Gallo at the National

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444 FUNGAL DISEASES Stephen Albert Johnston, Ph.D., is currently director of the Center for Inno- vations in Medicine in the Biodesign Institute at Arizona State University. His center focuses on formulating and implementing disruptive technologies for basic problems in health care. The center has three divisions: Genomes to Vac - cines, Cancer Eradication, and DocInBox. Genomes to Vaccines has developed high-throughput systems to screen for vaccine candidates and is applying them to predict and produce chemical vaccines. The Cancer Eradication group is working on formulating a universal prophylactic vaccine for cancer. DocInBox is devel- oping technologies to facilitate presymptomatic diagnosis. Dr. Johnston founded the Center for Biomedical Inventions (also known as the Center for Translation Research) at the University of Texas, Southwestern, the first center of its kind in the medical arena. He and his colleagues have developed numerous inventions and innovations, including the gene gun, genetic immunization, the tobacco etch virus protease system, organelle transformation, digital optical chemistry arrays, expression library immunization, linear expression elements, synbodies, immunosignaturing diagnosis, and others. He also was involved in transcription research for years, first cloning Gal4 and later discovering functional domains in transcription factors and the connection of the proteasome to transcription. He has been professor at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas and associate and assistant professor at Duke University. He has been involved in several capacities as an adviser on biosecurity since 1996 and is a founding member of BioChem 20/20. Kent Kester, M.D., is currently the commander of the Walter Reed Army Insti- tute of Research (WRAIR) in Silver Spring, Maryland. Dr. Kester holds an un - dergraduate biology degree from Bucknell University (1982) and an M.D. from Jefferson Medical College (1986). He completed his internship and residency in internal medicine at the University of Maryland Hospital/Baltimore VA Medical Center (1989) and a fellowship in infectious diseases at the Walter Reed Army Medical Center (1995). A malaria vaccine researcher with over 50 authored or coauthored scientific manuscripts and book chapters, Dr. Kester has played a major role in the development of the candidate falciparum malaria vaccine known as RTS,S, having safely conducted the largest number of experimental malaria challenge studies ever attempted to date. Dr. Kester’s previous military medical research assignments have included director of the WRAIR Malaria Serology Reference Laboratory; chief, Clinical Malaria Vaccine Development Program; chief of the WRAIR Clinical Trials Center; and director of the WRAIR Division of Regulated Activities. He currently is a member of the Steering Committee of the NIAID/Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, as well as multiple NIAID Safety Monitor- ing Committees. He also serves as the consultant to the U.S. Army Surgeon General in Medical Research and Development. Board certified in both internal medicine and infectious diseases, Dr. Kester is also a fellow of both the Ameri-

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445 APPENDIX E can College of Physicians and the IDSA. He holds faculty appointments at both the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences and the University of Maryland School of Medicine. Gerald T. Keusch, M.D., is associate provost and associate dean for global health at Boston University and Boston University School of Public Health. He is a graduate of Columbia College (1958) and Harvard Medical School (1963). After completing a residency in internal medicine, fellowship training in infec- tious diseases, and 2 years as an NIH research associate at the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization Medical Research Laboratory in Bangkok, Thailand, Dr. Keusch joined the faculty of the Mt. Sinai School of Medicine in 1970, where he established a laboratory to study the pathogenesis of bacillary dysentery and the biology and biochemistry of Shiga toxin. In 1979 he moved to Tufts Medi- cal School and New England Medical Center in Boston to found the Division of Geographic Medicine, which focused on the molecular and cellular biology of tropical infectious diseases. In 1986 he integrated the clinical infectious diseases program into the Division of Geographic Medicine and Infectious Diseases, continuing as division chief until 1998. He has worked in the laboratory and in the field in Latin America, Africa, and Asia on basic and clinical infectious diseases and HIV/AIDS research. From 1998 to 2003, he was associate director for international research and director of the Fogarty International Center at NIH. Dr. Keusch is a member of the American Society for Clinical Investigation, the Association of American Physicians, the ASM, and the IDSA. He has received the Squibb (1981), Finland (1997), and Bristol (2002) awards of the IDSA. In 2002 he was elected to the IOM. Rima F. Khabbaz, M.D., is deputy director for infectious diseases at CDC. Prior to her current position, she served as director of CDC’s National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases and held other leadership positions across the agency’s infectious disease national centers. She is a graduate of the American University of Beirut, Lebanon, where she obtained both her bachelor’s degree in science and her medical doctorate degree. She trained in internal medicine and completed a fellowship in infectious diseases at the University of Maryland, Baltimore. She joined CDC in 1980 as an epidemic intelligence service officer, working in the Hospital Infections Program. During her CDC career, she has made major contributions to advance infectious dis- ease prevention, including leadership in defining the epidemiology of non-HIV retroviruses (HTLV-I and II) in the United States and developing guidance for counseling HTLV-infected persons, establishing national surveillance for hanta - virus pulmonary syndrome following the 1993 U.S. outbreak, and developing CDC’s blood safety and food safety programs related to viral diseases. She has also played key roles in CDC’s responses to outbreaks of new and/or reemerg ing viral infections, including Nipah, Ebola, West Nile, SARS, and monkeypox, as

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446 FUNGAL DISEASES well as the 2001 anthrax attacks. She is a fellow of the IDSA and member of the American Epidemiologic Society, the ASM, and the Council of State and Territo - rial Epidemiologists. She served on IDSA’s Annual Meeting Scientific Program Committee and currently serves on the society’s National and Global Public Health Committee. In addition to her CDC position, she serves as clinical as- sociate professor of medicine (infectious diseases) at Emory University. She is a graduate of the National Preparedness Leadership Initiative at Harvard University and of the Public Health Leadership Institute at the University of North Carolina. Stanley M. Lemon, M.D., is professor of medicine at the University of North Carolina, School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina. He received his undergraduate A.B. degree in biochemical sciences from Princeton University summa cum laude and his M.D. with honors from the University of Rochester. He completed postgraduate training in internal medicine and infectious diseases at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, and is board certified in both. From 1977 to 1983 he served with the U.S. Army Medical Research and Devel - opment Command, followed by a 14-year period on the faculty of the University of North Carolina, School of Medicine. He moved to the University of Texas Medical Branch in 1997, serving first as chair of the Department of Microbiology and Immunology, then as dean of the School of Medicine from 1999 to 2004. Dr. Lemon’s research interests relate to the molecular virology and pathogenesis of the positive-stranded RNA viruses responsible for hepatitis. He has had a long- standing interest in antiviral and vaccine development and has served as chair of FDA’s Anti-Infective Drugs Advisory Committee. He is the past chair of the Steering Committee on Hepatitis and Poliomyelitis of the WHO Programme on Vaccine Development. He is past chair of the NCID-CDC Board of Scientific Counselors and currently serves as a member of the U.S. Delegation to the U.S.–Japan Cooperative Medical Sciences Program. He was co-chair of the NAS Committee on Advances in Technology and the Prevention of Their Application to Next Generation Biowarfare Threats, and he recently chaired an IOM study committee related to vaccines for the protection of the military against naturally occurring infectious disease threats. Edward McSweegan, Ph.D., is a program officer at NIAID. He graduated from Boston College with a B.S. in biology in 1978. He has an M.S. in microbiology from the University of New Hampshire and a Ph.D. in microbiology from the University of Rhode Island. He was an NRC associate from 1984 to 1986 and did postdoctoral research at the Naval Medical Research Institute in Bethesda, Maryland. Dr. McSweegan served as an AAAS diplomacy fellow in the U.S. State Department from 1986 to 1988, where he helped to negotiate science and technology agreements with Poland, Hungary, and the former Soviet Union. After moving to NIH, he continued to work on international health and infec - tious disease projects in Egypt, Israel, India, and Russia. Currently, he manages

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447 APPENDIX E NIAID’s bilateral program with India, the Indo–U.S. Vaccine Action Program, and he represents NIAID in the HHS Biotechnology Engagement Program with Russia and related countries. He is a member of AAAS, the ASM, and the Na - tional Association of Science Writers. He is the author of numerous journal and freelance articles. Mark A. Miller, M.D., is currently the Director of the Division of International Epidemiology and Population Studies for the Fogarty International Center at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, Maryland. He is also a Physi - cian at the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta Regional Hospital in Bethel, Alaska, which primarily serves Native Americans. He previously served as a Medical Officer on the Children’s Vaccine Initiative for WHO and the CDC, and Medical Epi- demiologist for the CDC National Immunizations Program and Epidemiology Program Office, Office of the Director. He also conducted research at the Armed Forces Research Institute for Medical Studies in Bangkok, Thailand, the Yale Arbovirus Research Unit, and Cornell University Medical College. Dr. Miller received his B.A., magna cum laude, in neuroscience, biology, and human ecology from Amherst College in 1983, and his M.D. from Yale Univer- sity School of Medicine in 1990. He completed his internal medicine residency at Yale New Haven Hospital/Hospital of St. Raphael and became board certified in 1994. He has served as a member of many professional societies and steer- ing committees, including the Secretary’s Advisory Council on Public Health Preparedness Smallpox Modeling and several NSF, HHS, and NIH task forces. He has presented and consulted nationally and internationally for organizations including USAID, the Pan American Health Organization, and the World Bank. Dr. Miller is a reviewer for nine journals, including the Journal of Infectious Dis- eases, The Lancet, and the Journal of the American Public Health Association. He has won many awards, including the Distinguished Service Medal, from the U.S. Public Health Service and the CDC. He has published more than 50 scien - tific articles in the peer-reviewed literature, nine books and/or book chapters, and more than 50 letters and abstracts. Paul F. Miller, Ph.D.,5 is chief scientific officer for antibacterials research. He received his undergraduate degree in biology from LeMoyne College, and sub- sequently earned a Ph.D. in microbiology and immunology from the Albany Medical College in 1987. Following 4 years of postdoctoral studies on yeast molecular genetics at NIH in Bethesda, Maryland, Dr. Miller joined the Parke- Davis Pharmaceutical Research Division of Warner-Lambert Company in Ann Arbor, Michigan, in 1990 as a senior scientist in the Infectious Diseases Depart- ment, where he developed a number of novel screens and mechanism-of-action 5 Forum member until July 31, 2011.

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448 FUNGAL DISEASES tools. He then moved to Pfizer in 1997 as manager of the Antibacterials Biology Research group within the Antibacterials, Immunology, and Cancer Zone at the Groton, Connecticut, research labs, and has taken on increasing responsibility since that time. In his current role, he is responsible for all antibacterial research activities through early clinical development, as well as collaboratively estab- lishing R&D strategies in this disease area. His specific research interests and expertise include genetic mechanisms of intrinsic antibiotic resistance in bacteria as well as the use of novel genetic technologies for the elucidation of antibiotic mechanisms of action. Stephen S. Morse, Ph.D.,6 is Professor of Epidemiology at the Mailman School of Public Health of Columbia University, and Director of the PREDICT project of the USAID Emerging Pandemic Threats program. He was also founding Director of the Columbia University Center for Public Health Preparedness. He returned to Columbia in 2000 after four years in government service as Program Manager at the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, where he codirected the Pathogen Countermeasures Program and subsequently directed the Advanced Diagnostics Program. Before going to Columbia, he was Assistant Professor of Virology at the Rockefeller University in New York, where he remains an adjunct faculty member. He is the editor of two books, Emerging Viruses (Oxford Uni- versity Press, 1993; paperback, 1996), which was selected by American Scientist for its list of 100 Top Science Books of the 20th Century, and The Evolutionary Biology of Viruses (Raven Press, 1994). He was a founding Section Editor of the CDC journal Emerging Infectious Diseases and was formerly an Editor-in-Chief of the Pasteur Institute’s journal Research in Virology. Dr. Morse was Chair and principal organizer of the 1989 NIAID-NIH Conference on Emerging Viruses, for which he originated the term and concept of emerging viruses/infections. He has served as a member of the IOM-NAS Committee on Emerging Microbial Threats to Health, chaired its Task Force on Viruses, and was a contributor to the result- ing report Emerging Infections (1992). He has served on a number of NAS and IOM committees, including the IOM Committee on Xenograft Transplantation. Dr. Morse also served as an adviser to WHO and several government agencies. He is a fellow of the AAAS, the New York Academy of Sciences (and a past Chair of its microbiology section), the American Academy of Microbiology, the American College of Epidemiology, and an elected life member of the Council on Foreign Relations. He was the founding Chair of ProMED, the nonprofit inter- national Program to Monitor Emerging Diseases, and was one of the originators of ProMED-mail, an international network inaugurated by ProMED in 1994 for outbreak reporting and disease monitoring using the Internet. Dr. Morse received his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin, Madison. 6 Forum member until December 31, 2010.

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449 APPENDIX E George Poste, Ph.D., D.V.M., is chief scientist, Complex Adaptive Systems Initiative, and Del E. Webb Professor of Health Innovation at Arizona State Uni- versity (ASU). He assumed this post in 2009. From 2003 to 2009 he directed and built the Biodesign Institute at ASU. In addition to his academic post, he serves on the Board of Directors of Monsanto, Exelixis, Caris Life Sciences, LGC, and the Scientific Advisory Board of Synthetic Genomics. From 1992 to 1999 he was Chief Science and Technology Officer and President, R&D, of SmithKline Beecham (SB). During his tenure at SB he was associated with the successful registration of 31 drug, vaccine, and diagnostic products. In 2004 he was named “R&D Scientist of the Year” by R&D Magazine, in 2006 he received the Einstein award from the Global Business Leadership Council, and in 2009 he received the Scrip Lifetime Achievement award voted by the leadership of the global phar- maceutical industry. He has published over 350 research papers and edited 14 books on phar- maceutical technologies and oncology. He has received honorary degrees in sci- ence, law, and medicine for his research contributions and was honored in 1999 by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II as a Commander of the British Empire for his contributions to international security. He is a Fellow of the Royal Society, the Royal College of Pathologists, and the U.K. Academy of Medicine; a Distin- guished Fellow at the Hoover Institution, Stanford University; and a member of the Council on Foreign Relations. He has served on numerous government panels related to biosecurity and national competitiveness. John C. Pottage, Jr., M.D., has been vice president for Global Clinical Develop- ment in the Infectious Disease Medicine Development Center at GlaxoSmith- Kline since 2007. Previously he was senior vice president and chief medical officer at Achillion Pharmaceuticals in New Haven, Connecticut. Achillion is a small biotechnology company devoted to the discovery and development of medicines for HIV, hepatitis C virus, and resistant antibiotics. Dr. Pottage ini - tially joined Achillion in May 2002. Prior to Achillion, Dr. Pottage was medical director of Antivirals at Vertex Pharmaceuticals. During this time he also served as an associate attending physician at the Tufts New England Medical Center in Boston. From 1984 to 1998, Dr. Pottage was a faculty member at Rush Medical College in Chicago, where he held the position of associate professor, and also served as the medical director of the Outpatient HIV Clinic at Rush-Presbyterian- St. Luke’s Medical Center. While at Rush, Dr. Pottage was the recipient of several teaching awards and is a member of the Mark Lepper Society. Dr. Pottage is a graduate of St. Louis University School of Medicine and Colgate University. David Rizzo7 received his Ph.D. in plant pathology from the University of Min- nesota and joined the faculty of the University of California-Davis, Department 7 Forum member since September 1, 2011.

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450 FUNGAL DISEASES of Plant Pathology and the Graduate Group in Ecology in 1995. Research in his lab focuses on the ecology and management of forest tree diseases, including dis- eases caused by both native and introduced pathogens. Research in the lab takes a multiscale approach ranging from experimental studies on the basic biology of organisms to field studies across forest landscapes. Active collaborations include projects with landscape ecologists, epidemiologists, molecular biologists, ento - mologists, and forest managers. The primary research effort in the lab is currently Phytophthora species in California coastal forests, with an emphasis on Sudden Oak Death. As part of his research on Sudden oak Death, Dr. Rizzo also serves as the scientific advisor for the California Oak Mortality Task Force.In conifer forests of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, the lab studies a variety of diseases and their relationship to past and present forest management and conservation issues. In addition to research, Dr. Rizzo teaches undergraduate and graduate courses in mycology as well as introductory biology. Since 2004, he has been director of the Science and Society program in the College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences. Science and Society is an academic program designed to offer students the opportunity to discover the interdisciplinary connections that link the biologi- cal, physical and social sciences with societal issues and cultural discourses. Gary A. Roselle, M.D., is program director for infectious diseases for the VA Central Office in Washington, DC, as well as the chief of the medical service at the Cincinnati VA Medical Center. He is a professor of medicine in the Depart- ment of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, at the University of Cincinnati College Of Medicine. Dr. Roselle serves on several national advi- sory committees. In addition, he is currently heading the Emerging Pathogens Initiative for the VA. He has received commendations from the undersecretary for health for the VA and the secretary of VA for his work in the Infectious Dis- eases Program for the VA. He has been an invited speaker at several national and international meetings and has published more than 90 papers and several book chapters. Dr. Roselle received his medical degree from the OSU School of Medicine in 1973. He served his residency at the Northwestern University School of Medicine and his infectious diseases fellowship at the University of Cincinnati School of Medicine. Alan S. Rudolph, Ph.D., M.B.A., has led an active career in translating inter- disciplinary life sciences into useful applications for biotechnology devel opment. His experience spans basic research to advanced development in academia, gov - ernment laboratories, and most recently in the nonprofit and private sectors. He has published more than 100 technical publications in areas including molecular biophysics, lipid self-assembly, drug delivery, blood substitutes, medical imag- ing, tissue engineering, neuroscience, and diagnostics. As a National Research Council Post-Doctoral Fellow, his earliest work at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) demonstrated the translational value of strategies used by or-

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451 APPENDIX E ganisms that survive environmental extremes to preserve Defense products such as biosensors and blood products for field deployment. After a decade at NRL he was recruited to join the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, to lead new strategic efforts to extract and exploit useful principles and practices in life sciences and technology and establish an agency-wide strategy for investments in biosciences and biotechnology. As Chief of Biological Sciences and Technology, Dr. Rudolph established a framework for investments that continue today. These include new programs in broad areas of bioscience and technology such as sen - sors, diagnostics, materials, robotics, biomolecular, cell and tissue engineering, medical devices, and neuroscience and technology, including the current efforts in revolutionizing prosthetics. He received a meritorious civil service citation from the Office of the Secretary of Defense for his contributions to defining and implementing a new generation of life sciences and national security investments. In 2003, he left civil service for the private sector and starting new corporate biotechnology efforts. As Chief Executive Officer of Adlyfe Inc., a diagnostic platform company, and Board Chairman of Cellphire Inc., focused on develop- ment of novel hemostatic biologics for bleeding injury, he took nascent technol- ogy demonstrations and secured venture capital funding and pharmaceutical partnerships while managing all aspects of development toward first human use. These efforts included managing early manufacturing and regulatory strategies required for FDA approval of diagnostics and therapeutics. Most recently, he started a new international nonprofit foundation and, as Director of the Interna- tional Neuroscience Network Foundation, he has secured corporate and private philanthropic donors to fulfill the mission of the organization focused on brain STEM efforts and clinical trial management in underserved populations. He has a doctorate degree in zoology from the University of California at Davis and an M.B.A. from the George Washington University. Kevin Russell, M.D., M.T.M.&H., F.I.D.S.A. CAPT MC USN, is the Director, Department of Defense Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System, and Deputy Director, Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, in the U.S. Department of Defense. In this position, his priorities have been standard- ization, greater affiliations with world militaries, continuing to introduce scientific rigor into the network, and synchronization with other U.S. government global surveillance programs. He graduated from the University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio Medical School in 1990; after a family practice internship, he was accepted into the Navy Undersea Medicine program. He was stationed in Panama City, Florida, at the Experimental Diving Unit where he worked in div - ing medicine research from 1991 to 1995. After a preventive medicine residency with a masters in tropical medicine and hygiene, he was transferred to Lima, Peru, where he became head of the Virology Laboratory. His portfolio included febrile illness (largely arboviral in origin) and HIV surveillance studies in eight different countries of South America, as well as prospective dengue transmission studies.

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452 FUNGAL DISEASES In 2001, he moved back to the United States and became the director of the Re- spiratory Disease Laboratory at the Naval Health Research Center in San Diego, California. Febrile respiratory illness surveillance in recruits of all services was expanded into shipboard populations, Mexican border populations, support for outbreaks, and deployed settings. Validation and integration of new and emerging advanced diagnostic capabilities, utilizing the archives of specimens maintained at the laboratory, became a priority. A BSL-3-Enhanced was constructed. Projects expanded in 2006 to clinical trials support as Dr. Russell became the Principal Investigator for the Navy site in the FDA Phase III adenovirus vaccines trial, and more recently to support the Phase IV post-marketing trial of the recently FDA- approved ACAM2000 smallpox vaccine. Janet Shoemaker is director of the ASM’s Public Affairs Office, a position she has held since 1989. She is responsible for managing the legislative and regula- tory affairs of this 42,000-member organization, the largest single biological sci- ence society in the world. Previously, she held positions as assistant director of public affairs for the ASM; as ASM coordinator of the U.S.–U.S.S.R. Exchange Program in Microbiology, a program sponsored and coordinated by the NSF and the U.S. Department of State; and as a freelance editor and writer. She received her baccalaureate, cum laude, from the University of Massachusetts and is a graduate of the George Washington University programs in public policy and in editing and publications. She is a member of Women in Government Relations, the American Society of Association Executives, and AAAS. She has coauthored articles on research funding, biotechnology, biodefense, and public policy issues related to microbiology. P. Frederick Sparling, M.D., is professor of medicine, microbiology, and im- munology at the University of North Carolina (UNC), Chapel Hill. He is director of the SouthEast Sexually Transmitted Infections Cooperative Research Center and also the Southeast Regional Centers of Excellence in Biodefense and Emerg - ing Infections. Previously he served as chair of the Department of Medi cine and chair of the Department of Microbiology and Immunology at UNC. He was president of the IDSA from 1996 to 1997. He was also a member of the IOM Committee on Microbial Threats to Health (1990–1992) and the IOM Committee on Emerging Microbial Threats to Health in the 21st Century (2001–2003). Dr. Sparling’s laboratory research has been on the genetics and molecular biology of bacterial outer membrane proteins, with a major emphasis on gonococci and meningococci. His work helped to define the genetics of antibiotic resistance in gonococci and the role of iron-scavenging systems in the pathogenesis of human gonorrhea. Current interests include pathogenesis of gonococcal infections and development of a vaccine for gonorrhea and managing a large multi-institution interactive research group focused on emerging infections and biodefense.

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453 APPENDIX E Terence Taylor is the founding president of the International Council for the Life Sciences (ICLS). The ICLS is an independent nonprofit organization reg- istered in the United States and in the European Union. The ICLS is designed to promote best practices and codes of conduct for safety and security in rela- tion to biological risks. Terence Taylor also served as the vice president, Global Health and Security, at the Nuclear Threat Initiative. Prior to these appointments Terence Taylor was assistant director at the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) in London and was president and executive director of IISS-US in Washington, DC. At IISS, in addition to his overall program responsibilities, he led the Institute’s work on life sciences and security. He has substantial experi- ence in international security policy matters as a U.K. government official (both military and diplomatic) and for the United Nations (UN) both in the field and at UN Headquarters. He was a commissioner and one of the Chief Inspectors with the UN Special Commission on Iraq, with particular responsibilities for biological issues. His government experience is related to both military field operations and to the development and implementation of policies in relation to arms control and nonproliferation treaties and agreements for both conventional weapons and weapons of mass destruction and the law of armed conflict aspects of International Humanitarian Law. He has also conducted consulting work on political risk assessment and studies of the private biotechnology industry. He was a Science Fellow at Stanford University’s Center for International Security and Cooperation. He was an officer in the British Army with experience in many parts of the world including UN peacekeeping, counterinsurgency, and counter- terrorism operations. Murray Trostle, Dr.P.H., is a foreign service officer with USAID, presently serving as the deputy director of the Avian and Pandemic Influenza Prepared- ness and Response Unit. Dr. Trostle attended Yale University, where he received a master’s in public health in 1978, focusing on health services administration. In 1990, he received his doctorate in public health from UCLA. His research involved household survival strategies during famine in Kenya. Dr. Trostle has worked in international health and development for approximately 38 years. He first worked overseas in the Malaysian national malaria eradication program in 1968 and has since focused on health development efforts in the former Soviet Union, Africa, and Southeast Asia. He began his career with USAID in 1992 as a postdoctoral fellow with AAAS. During his career he has worked with a number of development organizations, such as the American Red Cross, Project Concern International, and the Center for Development and Population Activities. With USAID, Dr. Trostle has served as director of the child immunization cluster, where he was chairman of the European Immunization Interagency Coordinat- ing Committee and USAID representative to the Global Alliance on Vaccines and Immunization. Currently, Dr. Trostle leads the USAID Infectious Disease Surveillance Initiative as well as the Avian Influenza Unit.

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454 FUNGAL DISEASES Mary E. Wilson, M.D., is Associate Professor of Global Health and Population at the Harvard School of Public Health. Her academic interests include the ecol - ogy of infections and emergence of microbial threats, travel medicine, tuberculo - sis, and vaccines. Her undergraduate degree in French, English, and philosophy was awarded by Indiana University; she received her M.D. from the University of Wisconsin and completed an internal medicine residency and infectious disease fellowship at the Beth Israel Hospital in Boston (now Beth Israel-Deaconess Medical Center). She was Chief of Infectious Diseases at Mount Auburn Hos - pital, a Harvard-affiliated community teaching hospital in Cambridge, Massa- chusetts, for more than 20 years. She is a Fellow in the IDSA and the American College of Physicians. She has served on ACIP of the CDC, the Academic Ad- visory Committee for the National Institute of Public Health in Mexico, and on four committees for the IOM of the National Academies, including the Commit - tee on Emerging Microbial Threats to Health in the 21st Century, whose report (Microbial Threats to Health: Emergence, Detection, and Response) was released in March 2003. She has worked in Haiti at the Albert Schweitzer Hos pital and leads the Harvard-Brazil Collaborative Course on Infectious Diseases, which is taught in Brazil. In 1996 she was a resident scholar at the Bellagio Study Center, Italy, and in 2002 she was a Fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Be - havioral Sciences in Stanford, California. She was a member of the Pew National Commission on Industrial Farm Animal Production, whose report Putting Meat on the Table: Industrial Farm Animal Production in America was released in the spring of 2008. A former GeoSentinel Site Director (Cambridge), she now serves as a Special Advisor to the GeoSentinel Surveillance Network, a global network. She has lectured and published widely, serves on several editorial boards, and is an associate editor for Journal Watch Infectious Diseases. She is the author of A World Guide to Infections: Diseases, Distribution, Diagnosis (Oxford University Press, New York, 1991); senior editor, with Richard Levins and Andrew Spiel - man, of Disease in Evolution: Global Changes and Emergence of Infectious Diseases (New York Academy of Sciences, 1994); and editor of the volume New and Emerging Infectious Diseases (Medical Clinics of North America) published in 2008. She joined the Board of Trustees for ICDDR, B (International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh) in 2009 and is a member of the Board of Scientific Counselors for the CDC, the FXB-USA Board, and the APUA Board of Directors.