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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.

Financial support for this project was provided by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Food and Drug Administration, and the Fogarty International Center; U.S. Department of Defense, Department of the Army: Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System, Medical Research and Materiel Command, and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency; U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs; U.S. Department of Homeland Security; U.S. Agency for International Development; American Society for Microbiology; sanofi pasteur; Burroughs Wellcome Fund; Pfizer, Inc.; GlaxoSmithKline; Infectious Diseases Society of America; and the Merck Company Foundation. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-21226-7
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-21226-X

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Copyright 2011 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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The serpent has been a symbol of long life, healing, and knowledge among almost all cultures and religions since the beginning of recorded history. The serpent adopted as a logotype by the Institute of Medicine is a relief carving from ancient Greece, now held by the Staatliche Museen in Berlin.

Cover images: Front (upper): Little brown bats with white-nose syndrome, New York, photo courtesy of New York Department of Environmental Conservation; Front (lower): Yellow stripe rust on wheat, photo courtesy of Stephen A. Harrison, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center. Spine: The Panamanian golden frog (Atelopus zeteki), photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons, photo by Brian Gratwicke, Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute. Back: Geomyces destructans, shown in a false-color SEM image (fungus hyphae are yellow, green, and orange; spores are blue), image reprinted from Chaturvedi et al. (2010) Morphological and Molecular Characterizations of Psychrophillic Fungus Geomyces destructans from New York Bats with White Nose Syndrome (WNS). PLoS ONE 5(5): e10783. Doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010783.

Suggested citation: IOM (Institute of Medicine). 2011. Fungal Diseases: An Emerging Threat to Human, Animal, and Plant Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.



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