Natural vs manmade causes

Nonhuman impacts

Number of people affected

Occupational vs nonoccupational exposure

Personal awareness of risk or danger

Personal experience and knowledge

Personal influence or responsibility

Possibility of error

Preventable

Probability or frequency of adverse events or effects

Recurrence

Reversibility of effects

Severity of effect (for example, major vs minor, large vs small, fatal vs survivable, painful vs painless)

Size of the population at risk

Spatial distribution of risks

Speed with which adverse events occur

Transgenerational effects

Voluntariness

REFERENCES

Hohenemser, C., R.W. Kates, and P. Slovic. 1983. The nature of technological hazard. Science 220 (4495):378-384.

Jenni, K.E. 1997. Attributes for Risk Evaluation. Ph.D. Dissertation, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA.

Litai, D., D. Lanning, and N. Rasmussen. 1983. The public perception of risk. Pp. 213-224 in The Analysis of Actual Versus Perceived Risks , V. Covello, W. Flamm, J. Rodericks and R. Tardiff, eds. New York: Plenum Press.

Lowrance, W.W. 1976. Of Acceptable Risk: Science and the Determination of Safety. Los Altos, CA: W. Kaufmann.

Rowe, W.D. 1977. An Anatomy of Risk. New York: Wiley.

Slovic, P., B. Fischhoff, and S. Lichtenstein. 1984. Behavioral decision theory perspectives on risk and safety. Acta Psychologica 56:183-203.

Vlek, C. and P.J. Stallen. 1980. Rational and personal aspects of risk. Acta Psychologica 45:273-300.



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