Edwin L. Thomas (NAE), Chair, professor and department head of materials science and engineering at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), carries out research on photonics, phononics, interference lithography and mechanical behavior of microtrusses, polymer physics and engineering of the mechanical and optical properties of block copolymers, liquid-crystalline polymers, and hybrid organic-inorganic nanocomposites. Professor Thomas has a special interest in the area of photonics and the fabrication of polymeric photonic crystals using self-assembly, especially with block copolymers, and holographic interference lithography. For these studies, much emphasis is placed on the understanding of complex relations between the lattice symmetry and optical properties of periodic structures. Another area of particular focus is phononics. Professor Thomas’s group is exploring the way that light and sound propagate in quasi-crystalline photonic and phononic structures. Other major topics in his research are structured polymers. His structured-materials research concentrates on enhancing the ability to fabricate complex structures with characteristic length in submicron and nanometer ranges in order to create materials with superior properties that can be tailored to a particular application. Understanding the influence of composition and processing conditions on the resultant microstructure of polymers and how this determines the properties is the central part of his polymer morphology research. Professor Thomas is also the founding director of MIT’s Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies (ISN), where advanced nanotechnology research seeks to improve the survival of the soldier of the future. The ISN was founded in March 2002 with the help of a $50 million contract from the U.S. Army, and now entering its third 5-year contract, its charge is to pursue a long-range vision for how technology can make soldiers less vulnerable to enemy and environmental threats. The ultimate goal is to create a 21st-century battlesuit that combines high-tech capabilities with light weight and comfort.
Michael F. McGrath, Vice Chair, is the vice president for systems and operations analysis at Analytic Services Inc. (ANSER), a not-for-profit government services organization. He previously served as the Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Research, Development, Test and Evaluation, and in that position, he was a strong proponent for improvements in technology transition, modeling and simulation, and testing and evaluation. In prior positions, Dr. McGrath served as the vice president for government business at the Sarnoff Corporation, assistant director for manufacturing at the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), and director of the Department of Defense’s (DoD) Computer-aided Acquisition and Logistics Support (CALS) Program. While at DARPA, Dr. McGrath managed the Affordable Multi-Missile Manufacturing Program and the Agile Manufacturing Program, which developed technologies for distributed engineering and manufacturing processes and teams. He also led DoD’s Research and Development (R&D) planning program Technology for Affordability. He has maintained research interests in information systems, supply chains, and manufacturing technologies. He is a member of the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Board on Manufacturing and Engineering Design, and he chaired the 2002 NRC study Equipping Tomorrow’s Military Force: Integration of Commercial and Military Manufacturing in 2010 and Beyond. Dr. McGrath’s expertise includes defense R&D programs and organizational management, defense acquisition, systems engineering, manufacturing enterprise systems, and life-cycle support. He holds a B.S. in space science and applied physics (1970) and an M.S. in aerospace engineering (1972) from Catholic University and a doctorate in operations research from George Washington University (1985).
Relva C. Buchanan is a professor and former head of ceramics and materials science in the Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering at the University of Cincinnati. His
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Appendix B Biographical Sketches of Committee Members Edwin L. Thomas (NAE), Chair, professor and department Michael F. McGrath, Vice Chair, is the vice president for head of materials science and engineering at Massachusetts systems and operations analysis at Analytic Services Inc. Institute of Technology (MIT), carries out research on pho- (ANSER), a not-for-profit government services organization. tonics, phononics, interference lithography and mechanical He previously served as the Deputy Assistant Secretary of the behavior of microtrusses, polymer physics and engineering Navy for Research, Development, Test and Evaluation, and of the mechanical and optical properties of block copo- in that position, he was a strong proponent for improvements lymers, liquid-crystalline polymers, and hybrid organic- in technology transition, modeling and simulation, and test - inorganic nanocomposites. Professor Thomas has a special ing and evaluation. In prior positions, Dr. McGrath served interest in the area of photonics and the fabrication of poly- as the vice president for government business at the Sarnoff meric photonic crystals using self-assembly, especially with Corporation, assistant director for manufacturing at the De- block copolymers, and holographic interference lithography. fense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), and For these studies, much emphasis is placed on the under- director of the Department of Defense’s (DoD) Computer- standing of complex relations between the lattice symmetry aided Acquisition and Logistics Support (CALS) Program. and optical properties of periodic structures. Another area of While at DARPA, Dr. McGrath managed the Affordable particular focus is phononics. Professor Thomas’s group is Multi-Missile Manufacturing Program and the Agile Manu- exploring the way that light and sound propagate in quasi- facturing Program, which developed technologies for distrib- crystalline photonic and phononic structures. Other major uted engineering and manufacturing processes and teams. He topics in his research are structured polymers. His structured- also led DoD’s Research and Development (R&D) planning materials research concentrates on enhancing the ability to program Technology for Affordability. He has maintained fabricate complex structures with characteristic length in research interests in information systems, supply chains, and submicron and nanometer ranges in order to create materials manufacturing technologies. He is a member of the National with superior properties that can be tailored to a particular Research Council’s (NRC’s) Board on Manufacturing and application. Understanding the influence of composition Engineering Design, and he chaired the 2002 NRC study and processing conditions on the resultant microstructure Equipping Tomorrow’s Military Force: Integration of Com- of polymers and how this determines the properties is the mercial and Military Manufacturing in 2010 and Beyond. Dr. central part of his polymer morphology research. Professor McGrath’s expertise includes defense R&D programs and Thomas is also the founding director of MIT’s Institute for organizational management, defense acquisition, systems en- Soldier Nanotechnologies (ISN), where advanced nanotech- gineering, manufacturing enterprise systems, and life-cycle nology research seeks to improve the survival of the soldier support. He holds a B.S. in space science and applied physics of the future. The ISN was founded in March 2002 with the (1970) and an M.S. in aerospace engineering (1972) from help of a $50 million contract from the U.S. Army, and now Catholic University and a doctorate in operations research entering its third 5-year contract, its charge is to pursue a from George Washington University (1985). long-range vision for how technology can make soldiers less Relva C. Buchanan is a professor and former head of ceram- vulnerable to enemy and environmental threats. The ultimate goal is to create a 21st-century battlesuit that combines high- ics and materials science in the Department of Chemical and tech capabilities with light weight and comfort. Materials Engineering at the University of Cincinnati. His 113
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114 OPPORTUNITIES IN PROTECTION MATERIALS SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY FOR FUTURE ARMY APPLICATIONS research focus is on electroceramics materials as components areas, including metals, ceramics, composites, magnetic for passive devices and various microelectronics sensing materials, thin films, nanomaterials, and semiconductors, applications. Included are ferroelectric thin-film systems with an emphasis on production and production capacity. and also core-shell/barrier-layer structures, developed in Her recent focus has been on dynamic processing and pro- donor doped BaTiO3 ceramics, with superior dielectric and duction of powder materials using submillisecond-duration strain properties, of interest for supercapacitor and sensor dynamic pressures. The process has also been successfully applications. Dr. Buchanan’s research interests include Ni- applied to armor-grade materials. Dr. Chelluri is the inventor ZrO2 and Ni/NiO composite film structures for fuel cell and of the dynamic magnetic powder compaction process. She capacitive electrode systems and thermistor use. Conductive holds six patents and has four patents pending related to the polymer/carbon composite structures for electromagnetic processing of advanced powder materials. She led numerous shielding and thermistor and toxic gas detection, as well as development projects as principal investigator, including Ap- low-temperature glasses for thick-film use, are also areas plied Technology Programs and Department of Defense and of his ongoing research. Dr. Buchanan is a fellow of the Department of Energy research programs. Dr. Chelluri has Graduate College, University of Cincinnati; a fellow of the authored over 60 publications, of which several are invited American Ceramic Society; a fellow of the American Soci- feature articles. She has presented numerous invited talks at ety of Metals (International); and a member of the National national and international conferences. Dr. Chelluri is the Institute of Ceramic Engineers. He has served as trustee of IAP corporate representative for the Metal Powder Indus- the American Ceramic Society and chair of its Programs tries Federation and the Edison Welding Institute. She holds and Meetings Committee. He is a member of the Ferro - professional membership in the following: Metal Powder electrics Program Committee of the Institute of Electrical Industries Federation; the Advanced Particulate Materials and Electronics Engineers and currently serves on several Association; the American Society for Metals; the Metals, international review committees: the International Panel Minerals and Materials Society; the American Ceramic on Evaluation of Portuguese Materials Science Research, Society; and the European Powder Metallurgy Association. the International Advisory Committee of Electroceramics Richard A. Haber is a professor of material science and en- European Conferences V-VIX, the International Conference on Electroceramics, 2003 through 2009, and the U.S.-Japan gineering at Rutgers University. Professor Haber is also the conference committee on dielectrics. He has served also on director of the Center for Ceramic Research, the oldest active several national review committees, including as chair of the National Science Foundation Industry/University Coopera- Energy Technology Review Committee, University of Chi- tive Research Center in the United States. Professor Haber cago/Argonne National Laboratory, and on the Ohio Science also is the manager of the U.S. Army Research Laboratory’s and Technology Council. Dr. Buchanan has authored more Material Center of Excellence for Ceramics in Lightweight than 150 technical and review articles (e.g., in the Journal of Vehicular Armor at Rutgers. He has been on the faculty of Materials Research, Applied Physics Letters, the Journal of Rutgers since 1984. He received his B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. the American Ceramics Society, Sensors and Actuators, and degrees from Rutgers University. He is a fellow and past others). He has given more than 120 invited talks and more vice president of the American Ceramic Society and past than 100 technical presentations (with his students) and has president of the Ceramic Manufacturers Council. Professor co-authored or authored six books. His book Ceramic Mate- Haber has written more than 90 papers and presented more than 250 lectures worldwide, on a range of topics including rials for Electronics: Process, Properties, and Applications (Marcel Dekker, 1991; 3rd ed., 2004) is widely used in the the following: ceramic processing, minerals processing, field, as is his book Materials Crystal Chemistry (Dekker, characterization of ceramic materials, strategic mineral and 1997). He teaches courses in materials science, ceramic material utilization, nondestructive analysis, and structure- processing, materials crystal chemistry, functional ceramic property relations in armor ceramics. devices, electrical ceramics, and glass and glass properties. John Woodside Hutchinson (NAS/NAE) is the Lawrence Bhanumathi Chelluri is a senior research scientist and pro- Professor of Engineering, School of Engineering and Ap- gram manager at IAP Research, Inc. Dr. Chelluri received plied Sciences, Harvard University. Professor Hutchinson her M.S. in physics (1974) and Ph.D. in materials science and his collaborators work on problems in solid mechanics and engineering (1980) from the University of Illinois at concerned with engineering materials and structures. Buck- Champaign-Urbana. After completing her Ph.D., she worked ling and structural stability, elasticity, plasticity, fracture, and at the Max-Planck Institute in Germany for 2 years. On re- micromechanics are all relevant research topics. Research turning to the United States, Dr. Chelluri joined AT&T Bell activities include efforts to develop a mechanics framework Laboratories in New Jersey in the molecular beam epitaxy for assessing the durability of thermal barrier coatings and research and development group. In 1989, she joined IAP (TBCs) and the development of a fracture approach for as program manager of the advanced materials group. She has structures subject to intense dynamic loads. Industrial efforts initiated and worked on a broad range of materials research are under way to exploit these ceramic coatings, which are
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115 APPENDIX B now widely used in aircraft and power generation turbines Dr. Kumar was associated with the polymer branch at the to shield engine blades and essentially all metal surfaces Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force from high temperatures, thus enabling even higher operating Base, Ohio, as an onsite contractor through Universal Energy temperatures. The technological challenge is to enhance the Systems and subsequently through the University of Dayton lifetime of the coatings under more severe operating condi- Research Institute. At the Air Force Research Laboratory, the tions given their tendency to delaminate and spall. The effort focus of his research was structure, processing, and proper- involves collaboration with a broad community of engineers ties of rigid-rod polymeric fibers, as well as structural studies and material scientists who are actively exploring all aspects of carbon fibers and thermosetting and thermoplastic resins. of TBCs. A wide range of efforts are also under way to de- His current research and teaching interests are in the areas of velop new concepts for metallic structures with enhanced structure, processing, and properties of polymers, fibers, and blast resistance (fracture now generally limits the maximum composites, with an emphasis on polymer-carbon nanotube sustainable load). Professor Hutchinson’s current work in nanocomposites. Dr. Kumar has conducted fiber processing this area is focused on the development of fracture models and structure-property studies on a broad range of polymers, that can be employed in structural analysis codes to predict including synthetic and natural polymers, as well as carbon both the onset of failure and its progression. fibers. His areas of research interest also include the ability of carbon nanotubes to nucleate polymer crystallization as Gordon R. Johnson is a program director in the Engineer- well as their ability to template polymer orientation. He is ing Dynamics Department at Southwest Research Institute. also conducting research on carbon-based electrochemical Previously he was a chief fellow at Honeywell/ATK and a supercapacitors, with the objective of enhancing their energy senior scientist at Network Computing Services/Army High density. He serves on the editorial advisory boards of several Performance Computing Research Center. He received a journals in the field. B.S., M.S.C.E., and Ph.D. from the University of Minnesota Robert M. McMeeking (NAE), a professor of mechani- in 1964, 1966, and 1974, respectively. Dr. Johnson is the originator and principal developer of the EPIC computer cal engineering and professor of materials, University of code, which has been used extensively by the Department California, Santa Barbara (UCSB), earned a B.Sc. (with first of Defense, the Department of Energy, and industry for class honors) in mechanical engineering at the University computations involving high-velocity impact and explosive of Glasgow, Scotland, in 1972, finishing first in his class detonation. He has developed numerous algorithms for of mechanical engineers. He then completed his M.S. and finite elements, meshless particles, contact, and linking of Ph.D. in solid mechanics at Brown University under the particles to elements. He has also been a developer of the supervision of Professor James R. Rice, with dissertations Johnson-Cook strength and failure models for metals, the on finite deformation plasticity methods for finite elements Johnson-Holmquist models for ceramics (JH-1 and JH-2), and ductile crack tip blunting in metals. He was at Stanford the Johnson-Holmquist-Beissel model for ceramics with a University for 2 years working on metal forming problems phase change, the Holmquist-Johnson-Cook model for con- with Professor Erastus H. Lee. After 7 years at the University crete, and the Johnson-Beissel-Cunniff models for fabrics of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign on the faculty of the Theo- and composites. He is the author of numerous publications, retical and Applied Mechanics Department, Professor Mc- served on the National Research Council’s Committee on Meeking went to UCSB in 1985 as a professor of materials the Safety and Security of Commercial Spent Fuel Storage, and of mechanical and environmental engineering. He was and received the H.W. Sweatt Award from Honeywell and chair of the Department of Mechanical and Environmental the Distinguished Scientist Award from the Hypervelocity Engineering at UCSB in 1992-1995 and again during 1999- Impact Society. 2003. He has written more than 220 scientific papers on such subjects as plasticity, fracture mechanics, computational Satish Kumar is professor of materials science and engi- methods, glaciology, tough ceramics, composite materials, neering at the Georgia Institute of Technology. He received materials processing, powder consolidation and sintering, his M.Sc. degree in physics in 1975 from the University of ferroelectrics, structural evolution, nanotribology, actuat- Roorkee, India (now I.I.T. Roorkee) and his Ph.D. in the ing structures, blast and fragment protection of structures, field of fiber science in 1979 from the Textile Technology fluid structure interactions arising from underwater blast Department at the Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi. waves, and the mechanics of the cell and its cytoskeleton. In He obtained his post-doctoral experience in polymer science 1983, Professor McMeeking was a Science and Engineer- and engineering under the tutelage of Professor R.S. Stein ing Research Council Senior Visiting Fellow at Cambridge at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. He conducted University. In 1995-1996 he was a visiting professor at research as a foreign collaborator at C.E.N.G. at Grenoble, Cambridge University and was honored as a visiting scholar France, a laboratory of the Atomic Energy Commission of at Pembroke College. He was Southwest Mechanics Lecturer France, using small-angle scattering studies to understand in 1988, and a plenary lecturer at the Seventh International the structure of ion-containing polymers. From 1984 to 1989, Congress on Fracture in 1989, and he was honored as a
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116 OPPORTUNITIES IN PROTECTION MATERIALS SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY FOR FUTURE ARMY APPLICATIONS Midwest Mechanics Lecturer in 1992-1993 and as the Ar- cant increase in the mechanical performance of laminates as thur Newell Talbot Lecturer at the University of Illinois at compared to the traditional particulate B4C–SiC composites. Urbana-Champaign in 2007. In 1998 he was elected a fellow Another topic that Dr. Orlovskaya is currently pursuing is of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and in the mechanochemical synthesis of ReB2, OsB2, and IrB2 2002 was recognized by the Institute for Scientific Informa- powders. Additionally, stress- and temperature-altered vi- tion as a highly cited researcher in the fields of materials brational properties of Zr(Hf)B2–SiC ceramic composites science and engineering. He was also promoted to fellow of are under intensive exploration. Dr. Orlovskaya’s interest in the American Academy of Mechanics in 2002 and in 2004 materials availability and world production of lightweight was given an Alexander von Humboldt Research Award for materials led her to organize, as director of a NATO Ad- senior U.S. scientists. Professor McMeeking was elected to vanced Research Workshop, a workshop entitled “Boron the National Academy of Engineering in 2005 and was given Rich Solids: Sensors for Chemical and Biological Detection, the Brown University Engineering Alumni Medal in 2007. Ultra High Temperature Ceramics, Thermoelectrics and Ar- He has served as a reviewer for funding agencies such as mor,” held at UCF in 2009. The workshop attracted attention the National Science Foundation, the Department of Energy, from the international community interested in boron-rich and the Army Research Office in the United States and for solids, and scientists from the United States, France, Italy, funding agencies of the United Kingdom, Austria, Denmark, Germany, Russia, Ukraine, Japan, Egypt, India, and South Hong Kong, Ireland, and Sweden. He is active in consulting Africa presented their research results during the workshop. for manufacturers of medical devices and other companies Michael Ortiz, the Dotty and Dick Hayman Professor of on mechanical stress, fatigue life, fracture, and ferroelectric devices. He was associate editor of the American Society of Aeronautics and Mechanical Engineering, California Insti- Mechanical Engineers Journal of Applied Mechanics, 1987- tute of Technology (Caltech), Department of Engineering 1993, and is currently editor for the 2002-2012 term. He is and Applied Science, received a B.S. degree in civil engi- an editorial board member for several journals in the fields neering from the Polytechnic University of Madrid, Spain, of solid mechanics and materials and has reviewed for all and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in civil engineering from the the major journals in his field. In addition to his appointment University of California, Berkeley. From 1984 to 1995 he at UCSB, Professor McMeeking is Sixth Century Professor held a faculty position in the Division of Engineering at of Engineering Materials (part-time) at the University of Brown University, where he carried out research activities Aberdeen, Scotland; visiting professor of materials engi- in the fields of the mechanics of materials and computational neering at the University of the Saarland, Germany; and solid mechanics. He has been on the faculty at Caltech since external member of the Leibniz Institute for New Materials, 1995 and currently serves as the director of its Department of Saarbrücken, Germany. Energy/Predictive Science Academic Alliance Program Cen- ter on High-Energy Density Dynamics of Materials. Profes- Nina A. Orlovskaya is an assistant professor of mechanical, sor Ortiz has been a Fulbright Scholar, a Sherman Fairchild materials, and aerospace engineering at the University of Distinguished Scholar at Caltech, a Midwest and Southwest Central Florida (UCF). Her research interests lie in the field Mechanics Seminar Series Distinguished Speaker, a fellow of ceramics and ceramics composites for various engineering and an elected member-at-large of the U.S. Association for applications. During her research career she has addressed Computational Mechanics, and an elected fellow of the numerous topics both in the processing of ceramics and American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Professor Ortiz ceramic composites and in the characterization of materials’ is the recipient of the Alexander von Humboldt Research properties. She devoted significant efforts to the develop- Award for Senior U.S. Scientists, the International Compu- ment of the hot-pressing technique for the manufacture of tational Mechanics Awards for Research, the U.S. Associa- B4C, Si3N4, and SiC-based ceramics for armor and cutting- tion for Computational Mechanics Computational Structural tools applications. Through her manufacturing work she has Mechanics Award, the ISI Highly Cited Researcher Award, gained extensive experience not only in hot pressing but also and the inaugural 2008 Rodney Hill Prize conferred every 4 in pressureless sintering of bulk ceramic materials, as well as years by the International Union of Theoretical and Applied in magnetron sputtering of the thin films. Recently she has Mechanics. Professor Ortiz has served on the Science and also been working on spark plasma sintering to process B4C, Technology Panel of the University of California’s Office of ZrB2 and ReB2 ceramics. One of Dr. Orlovskaya’s major the President and on the Los Alamos National Laboratory research interests is lightweight, hard, and tough boron-rich T-Division Review Committee. He currently serves on the ceramic laminates. B4C/B4C–SiC laminates are designed Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Predictive Sci- such that the differences in the layers’ compositions lead ence Panel; the Sandia National Laboratories Engineering to the differences in the coefficients of thermal expansion Sciences External Review Panel; the Lawrence Livermore and Young’s moduli of the adjacent layers, thus facilitat- National Laboratory Chemistry, Materials, Earth and Life ing the appearance of thermal residual stresses. If properly Sciences Directorate Review Committee; and the National designed, the thermal residual stresses could bring a signifi- Research Council’s Panel for the Evaluation of Quantifica-
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117 APPENDIX B gins Award for Excellence in Teaching from Johns Hopkins tion of Methods and Uncertainty; he chairs the Lawrence University, 1995; elected member, Pi Tau Sigma, 1994; and Livermore National Laboratory Engineering Directorate best paper, ASME Tribology Division, 1987. Review Committee. He has been editor of the Journal of Engineering Mechanics of the American Society of Chemi- Donald A. Shockey, director of the SRI International Center cal Engineers and of the Journal of Applied Mechanics of the for Fracture Physics, is an internationally recognized expert American Society of Mechanical Engineers, associate editor in the fracture of materials and structures and an authority on of the journal Modeling and Simulation in Materials Sci- failure under impact and explosive loads. He joined SRI In- ence and Engineering and of the Journal for Computational ternational in 1971 after earning a doctorate in materials sci - Mechanics and is currently associate editor of the Journal of ence at Carnegie Mellon University and completing a 3-year the Mechanics and Physics of Solids and of the Archive for postdoctoral appointment at the Ernst-Mach-Institut and the Rational Mechanics and Analysis. Institut für Werkstoffmechanik in Freiburg, Germany. In his Raúl A. Radovitzky, an associate professor of aeronautics 39 years at SRI, he has directed more than 350 research proj- ects for government and industry, many of which involved and astronautics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology ballistic testing, modeling, and post-test damage assessment (MIT), is also the associate director, Institute for Soldier of metals, ceramics, polymers, and fabrics. Inventor of en- Nanotechnologies. Professor Radovitzky was born in Argen- gine fragment barriers for commercial aircraft, he is currently tina and educated at the University of Buenos Aires, where he leading problem-solving efforts associated with developing obtained his civil engineering degree in 1991. He received his new glass-based materials and new structural designs for S.M. in applied mathematics from Brown University in 1995 more weight-efficient windows on military vehicles. He and his Ph.D. in aeronautical engineering from the California is also assessing transparent ceramics and novel structural Institute of Technology in 1998. He joined MIT’s Depart- designs for spacecraft windows that more effectively resist ment of Aeronautics and Astronautics in 2001 as the Charles damage from hypervelocity impact of micrometeorites and Stark Draper Assistant Professor. Professor Radovitzky’s orbital debris. Dr. Shockey’s recent failure-related projects research interests are in the development of advanced con- include the following: astronaut gloves—determining how cepts and material systems for blast protection. To this end, high-strength fabric gets abraded and torn during space his research group develops theoretical and computational walks and what can be done to prevent glove damage; descriptions of the blast event and its effects on structures stents for peripheral arteries—devising mechanical tests that and humans, including advanced computational methods and mimic loads imposed by blood vessels to enable the design algorithms for large-scale simulation. The resulting models of fracture-resistant stents; failure prognostics—developing help to improve the understanding of the various physical and applying advanced fractographic methods to generate components of the problem and thus to design protective sys- the ability to predict the future performance and remaining tems. Professor Radovitzky’s educational interests include useful life of aircraft, bridges, and pipelines; and failure computational mechanics, continuum mechanics, aerospace analysis—determining the root cause of and providing expert structures, mechanics of materials, numerical methods, testimony with respect to equipment failures such as rotor and high-performance computing. He is a member of the hub cracking in a Chilean power plant. Dr. Shockey has writ- American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Interna- ten more than 150 technical articles, holds several patents, tional Association of Computational Mechanics, American and serves on the NASA Panel of Materials Experts. He is Academy of Mechanics, Materials Research Society, U.S. a fellow of ASM International, the year 2000 recipient of Association of Computational Mechanics, and American the John S. Rinehart Award for pioneering work in the field Society of Mechanical Engineers. of dynamic fracture, and the 2006 recipient of the Murray Kaliat T. Ramesh is the director of the Center for Advanced Medal for excellence in experimental mechanics. Metallic and Ceramic Systems (CAMCS) in the Department Samuel Robert Skaggs, retired from Los Alamos National of Mechanical Engineering at the Johns Hopkins University. Laboratory (LANL), is a consultant for advanced armor de- His degrees include a B.E. in mechanical engineering from sign and evaluation. He has extensive experience in dynamic Bangalore University (India) in 1982, an Sc.M. in engineer- loading of materials under high strain rate. Dr. Skaggs was ing from Brown University in 1985, an Sc.M. in applied the LANL Armor Program manager from 1986 to 1993, mathematics from Brown University in 1987, and a Ph.D. assisting in the design of armors for Desert Storm and the in engineering from Brown University in 1988. Dr. Ramesh Balkans conflict for both ground vehicles and aircraft. He is was the chair of the Department of Mechanical Engineering responsible for the add-on armor for the U.S. Marine Corps at Johns Hopkins University in 1999-2002. He was appointed Light Armored Vehicle 25 (USMC LAV-25, now called the director of the CAMCS in 2001. His honors and awards Stryker) and the cockpit armor for the C-141 Starlifter lo- include the following: M. Hetényi Award from the Society gistics aircraft flying into and out of Sarajevo. From 1982 to for Experimental Mechanics, 2006; elected fellow, American 1986 he served as program manager for the LANL Materials Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2001; William H. Hug-
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118 OPPORTUNITIES IN PROTECTION MATERIALS SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY FOR FUTURE ARMY APPLICATIONS Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), a $400- by Design program as well as the Fossil Energy program. In million-per-year office whose technology purview included 1981-1982 he served at the Department of Energy, evaluating the physical sciences, materials, mathematics, human ef- alternative-energy methods for clean coal, coal liquefaction, fectiveness, and the biological sciences including biological and coal gasification. Dr. Skaggs earned a Ph.D. in materi- warfare defense. As director, Dr. Wax was responsible for the als science and an M.S. degree in nuclear engineering at the office’s investment strategy as well as the transition of the University of New Mexico and a bachelor’s degree in me- Defense Science Office’s technologies to the military. His chanical engineering at New Mexico College of Agriculture previous government positions also include deputy director and Mechanic Arts (now New Mexico State University). Dr. of the Technology Reinvestment Project and an assignment Skaggs has written more than 60 journal articles and reports to the National Reconnaissance Office. Dr. Wax is currently in classified and unclassified areas. He is a member of the a member of the National Materials Advisory Board and American Association for the Advancement of Science, the past member of the Sandia National Laboratories’ External Hypervelocity Impact Society, and the American Defense Review Panel for Materials. He recently served as an external Preparedness Association. He is also a member and founding reviewer of the discovery and innovation portfolio of the Of- president of the NMSU Mechanical Engineering Academy fice of Naval Research. He is also a member of the Air Force and founder of the Ceramics Modeling Working Group (a Research Laboratory’s Human Effectiveness Directorate’s joint working group of the Department of Energy, the De- independent review team and has supported the Advanced partment of Defense, and university and nonprofit scientific Research Projects Agency of the Department of Energy in research organizations) as well as a founding member of the its white paper evaluations. He was the winner of the George Advisory Council to the Dean of the College of Engineer- Kimball Burgess Memorial Award in 2009. Dr. Wax’s no- ing at NMSU, having served as secretary from its founding table technical accomplishments include a major role in the until 2010. development of the DARPA’s strategic plans for both biology Steven G. Wax is a technology consultant specializing in and materials science as well as the co-development of two material sciences program thrusts (Intelligent Processing defense research and development (R&D). He supports of Materials and Accelerated Insertion of Materials) that defense clients in strategic planning and technology innova- have revolutionized materials processing and insertion. He tion across a range of scientific and engineering disciplines, has also supported work in such diverse areas as ceramics, including the physical sciences, materials, biology, biomedi- ceramic composites and fibers, electroactive polymers, mate- cal, and mathematics. Prior to holding executive-level posi- rials processing, space materials and systems, advanced bat- tions at Strategic Analysis, Inc., and SRI, International, Dr. teries, and personnel armor. Dr. Wax holds a Ph.D. in ceramic Wax spent 35 years working for the Department of Defense engineering from Georgia Institute of Technology, an M.S. as a civilian and a military officer. During that period, he in chemical engineering from the University of Illinois, and performed and managed government R&D across a broad a B.S. in chemical engineering from the University of Mas- spectrum of classified and unclassified technology areas. sachusetts. Dr. Wax is a retired Air Force officer. His last government position was as director of the Defense