Recommendation 4-1. The Department of Defense should pursue an initiative for protection materials by design by exploiting the capabilities of advanced computational and experimental methods. The initiative will (1) enable improved understanding of fundamental material deformation and fracture mechanisms governing protection materials performance and (2) provide guidance for changes in material processing.
Recommendation 4-2. The protection materials by design initiative should also use advanced computational and experimental methods to simulate the ballistic and blast performance of candidate material protection systems.
Recommendation 4-3. The protection materials by design initiative should include a concerted effort to develop the next generation of Department of Defense advanced protection codes that incorporate experimentally validated, high-fidelity scientific models, as well as the necessary high-performance computing infrastructure. Progress in this direction will require the development of high spatial and temporal resolution (with 10-μ resolution in space and microsecond resolution in time) capabilities for in situ visualization of deformation and failure mechanisms during the impact event.
Recommendation 4-4. As part of the initiative, a program should be established with primary focus on code validation and verification; multiscale, multiphysics material models; integrated simulation/experimental protocols; prediction with quantified uncertainties; and simulation-based qualification to help advance predictive science for protection materials and material systems.
Recommendation 4-5. The initiative should identify a series of unclassified protection material challenge problems comprising simulation and experimental validation whose solution would convincingly demonstrate the effectiveness of protection materials by design. One such canonical problem might be the characterization of the high-strain-rate response of brittle armor materials such as ceramics and glasses under combinations of high pressure and shear representative of ballistic penetration, followed by a demonstration of the effectiveness of the new characterization in simulating the performance of a particular ceramic armor package.