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SucceSSful K–12 STeM educaTion NOTES 1 National Governors Association. (2007). Innovation 10 The workshop agenda is available at http://www7. America: A final report. Washington, DC: Author. Available nationalacademies.org/bose/STEM_SchoolsWorkshop _Agenda.pdf. at: http://www.nga.org/Files/pdf/0707innovationfinal. pdf. 2 Bryk, A.S., Sebring, P.B., Allensworth, E., Luppescu, S., and Easton, J.Q. (2010). Organizing schools for improvement: 11 National Academy of Sciences, National Academy Lessons from Chicago. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. (2007). See note 6. Quote taken from page 163. National Research Council. (2009a). Engineering in K-12 3 education: Understanding the status and improving the prospects. J. (2010). Foreign science and engineering students 12 Burrelli, in the United States. NSF Info Brief 10-324. Arlington, Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. VA: National Science Foundation. Available at: http:// 4 National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of www.nsf.gov/statistics/infbrief/nsf10324/nsf10324.pdf. Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. (2011a). Rising above the gathering storm revisited: Rapidly approaching cat- 13 See the joint G8 plus science academies’ statement egory 5. Condensed version. Washington, DC: The Education for a Science-Based Global Development at http:// National Academies Press. The quote was taken from www.nationalacademies.org/includes/Final_Education. page 4. pdf and http://www.stemedcaucus.org for a summary of the types of intellectual capital needed in today’s 5 Lacey, T.A., and Wright, B. (2009). Occupational em- economy. ployment projections to 2018. Monthly Labor Review, National Research Council. (2007). Taking science 14 132(11), 82-123. Available at: http://www.bls.gov/opub/ to school: Learning and teaching science in grades K-8. mlr/2009/11/art5full.pdf. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. 6 National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. (2007). Rising National Research Council. (2009b). L earning sci- above the gathering storm: Energizing and employing America ence in informal environments: People, places, and pursuits. for a brighter economic future. Washington, DC: The Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. National Academies Press. 15 President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Tech- President’s Council of Advisors on Science and nology. (2010). See note 6. Technology. (2010). Prepare and inspire: K-12 education in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) for America’s Goldin, C.D., and Katz, L.F. (2008). T he race between future. Washington, DC: Author. Available at: http:// education and technology. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ of Harvard University Press. ostp/pcast-stem-ed-final.pdf. 16 See note 6. Schmidt, W.H. (2011). STEM reform: W hich way to 7 go? Paper presented at the National Research Council 17 Wilson Wyner, J.S., Bridgeland, J.M., and Diiulio, J.J. (2007). The achievement trap: How America is failing mil- Workshop on Successful STEM Education in K-12 lions of high-achieving students from lower income families. A Schools. Available at: http://www7.nationalacademies. org/bose/STEM_Schools_Workshop_Paper_Schmidt. report by the Jack Kent Cooke Foundation and Civic pdf. Enterprises. Available at: http://www.jkcf.org/assets/ files/0000/0084/Achievement_Trap.pdf. 8 Hill, C.J., Bloom, H.S., Black, A.R., and Lipsey, M.W. 18 Plucker, J.A., Burroughs, N., and Song, R. (2010). M ind (2008). Empirical benchmarks for interpreting effect sizes in research. C hild Development Perspectives, 2(3), 172-177. the (other) gap! The growing excellence gap in K-12 education. Indiana University Center for Evaluation and Gonzales, P., Williams, T., Jocelyn, L., Roey, S., Kastberg, Education Policy (CEEP). Available at: https://www. D., and Brenwald, S. (2008). Highlights from TIMSS iub.edu/~ceep/Gap/excellence/ExcellenceGapBrief. 2007: Mathematics and science achievement of US fourth and pdf. Quote taken from page 34. eighth-grade students in an international context. (NCES 2009- Science Board. (2010). Science and engineering 19 National 001 Revised). Washington, DC: National Center for indicators 2010. Arlington, VA: National Science Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Foundation. Available at: http://www.nsf.gov/statistic/ seind10/pdfstart.htm. 9 Gonzales et al. (2008). See note 8. 31

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SucceSSful K–12 STeM educaTion National Academy of Sciences, National Academy at: http://www7.nationalacademies.org/bose/STEM of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. (2011b). Schools_Workshop_Paper_Young.pdf. This quote was Expanding underrepresented minority participation: America’s taken from page 2. science and technology talent at the crossroads. Committee 30 on Underrepresented Groups and the Expansion of the Ibid. Science and Engineering Workforce Pipeline, Committee 31 on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy, Policy Ibid. and Global Affairs, Washington, DC: The National 32 Academies Press. Young et al. (2011) (see note 29) used propensity score matching to identify comparison schools (this method is U.S. Department of Labor. (2007). T he STEM workforce 20 described in their report). Student and school character- challenge: The role of the public workforce system in a national istics also were entered as statistical controls to further solution for a competitive science, technology, engineering, and disentangle school effects from differences among stu- mathematics (STEM) workforce. Washington, DC: Author. dent populations. Available at: http://www.doleta.gov/youth_services/pdf/ Stone, J.R., III. (2011). Delivering STEM education 33 STEM_Report_4%2007.pdf. through career and technical education schools and programs. 21 Lacey and Wright. (2009). See note 5. Paper presented at the National Research Council Workshop on Successful STEM Education in K-12 22 Ibid. Schools. Available at: http://www7.nationalacademies. org/bose/STEM_Schools_Workshop_Paper_Stone.pdf. National Research Council. (1996). National science 23 education standards. Washington, DC: National Academy 34 Stone, J.R., III, Alfeld, C., and Pearson, D. (2008). Press. Rigor and relevance: Testing a model of enhanced math learning in career and technical education. A merican Hansen. M., and Choi, K. (2011). C hronically low- Education Research Journal, 45, 767-795. 24 performing schools and turnaround: Evidence from three states. Council of Chief State School Officers. (2008). Key 35 CALDER Working Paper #60. Washington, DC: Center state education policies on PK-12 education: 2008. Washington, for the Analysis of Longitudinal Data in Education Research. DC: Author. Subotnik, R.F., and Tai, R.H. (2011, May). Successful Lee, J.M., Jr., and Rawls, A. (2010). The College Board 25 36 education in the STEM disciplines: An examination of selec- completion agenda: 2010 progress report. New York: The tive specialized science mathematics and technology-focused College Board Advocacy and Policy Center. Available at: high schools. [Presentation slides]. Presented at the http://completionagenda.collegeboard.org/sites/default/ National Research Council Workshop on Successful files/reports_pdf/Progress_Report_2010.pdf. STEM Education in K-12 Schools. Available at: http:// Pellegrino, J. (2010, January). Redesign for Advanced 37 www7.nationalacademies.org/bose/STEM_Schools_ Placement science curriculum. [Presentation slides]. Workshop_Presentation_Tai_Subotnik.pdf. Presented at a meeting of the National Research Council’s 26 Ibid. Conceptual Framework for New Science Education Standards Committee. Available at: http://www7. 27 The study, being prepared by Rena Subotnik and nationalacademies.org/bose/Pellegrino_Framework_ Robert Tai, is using a quasi-experimental design to deter- Presentation.pdf. mine whether graduates of selective STEM secondary 38 Ibid. schools are more likely to remain in the STEM pipeline than students with similar achievement and interests Research Council. (2002). L earning and under- 39 National who attended more comprehensive public secondary standing: Improving advanced study of mathematics and science schools. in U.S. high schools. Committee on Programs for Advanced 28 Subotnik, R.F., and Tai, R.H. (2011, May). See note 25. Study of Mathematics and Science in American High Schools. Washington, DC: The National Academies 29 Young, V.M., House, A., Wang, H., Singleton, C., Press. Quote taken from page 5. and Klopfenstein, K. (2011). Inclusive STEM schools: 40 Many Early promise in Texas and unanswered questions. Paper pre- other issues are also important to STEM learning sented at the National Research Council Workshop on for which we lacked the time and available research syn- Successful STEM Education in K-12 Schools. Available theses to address. These issues include but are not limited 32

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SucceSSful K–12 STeM educaTion 47 to STEM teacher retention; enabling factors outside the National Mathematics Advisory Panel. (2008). See school, such as parents, business, and community; infor- note 41. mation about the relative cost of implementation; the 48 role of science fairs; and practices such as mentorships, Common Core State Standards Initiative. (2010). research experiences, and internships. Common core state standards for mathematics. Available at: http://www.corestandards.org/assets/CCSSIMath%20 41 National Mathematics Advisory Panel. (2008). Standards.pdf. Foundations for success: The final report of the National Mathematics Advisory Panel. Washington, DC: U.S. 49 National Research Council. (forthcoming). See note 42. Department of Education. Available at: http://www2. 50 ed.gov/about/bdscomm/list/mathpanel/report/final- Schmidt, W.H. (2011). See note 7. report.pdf. 51 Ibid. Quote taken from pp. 13-14. National Research Council. (1999). How people learn: Brain, mind, experience, and school. Committee on Developments 52 Boyd, D.J., Grossman, P.L., Lankford, H., Loeb, S., in the Science of Learning. J.D. Bransford, A.L. Brown, and Wyckoff, J. (2009). Teacher preparation and student achievement. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, and R.R. Cocking (Eds.). Washington, DC: National 31, 416-440. Academy Press. National Research Council. (2001). A dding it up: Helping National Research Council. (2010). Preparing teachers: 53 children learn mathematics. Washington, DC: National Building evidence for sound policy. Committee on the Study Academy Press. of Teacher Preparation Programs in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. National Research Council. (2005). How students learn: Mathematics in the classroom. Washington, DC: The 54 Ibid. National Academies Press. 55 Ibid. National Research Council. (2007). Taking science to school: Learning and teaching science in grades K-8. Washington, 56 Schmidt, W.A. (2011). See note 7. DC: The National Academies Press. Wilson, S. (2011). Effective STEM teacher preparation, 57 National Research Council. (2009a). Engineering in K-12 induction, and professional development. Paper presented at education: Understanding the status and improving the prospects. the National Research Council Workshop on Successful Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. STEM Education in K-12 Schools. Available at: http:// www7.nationalacademies.org/bose/STEM_Schools_ National Research Council. (2009b). L earning sci- Workshop_Paper_Wilson.pdf. ence in informal environments: People, places, and pursuits. 58 Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Ibid. 42 59 Ibid. National Research Council. (forthcoming). Conceptual framework for new science education standards. The committee 60 Cohen, had access to a draft of the conceptual framework that D.K., and Hill, H. (2000). Instructional policy was released to the public in July 2010 for comment. and classroom performance: The mathematics reform in California. Teachers College Record, 102(2), 294-343. The final version of the document is expected July 2011. 43 Young et al. (2011). See note 29. Desimone, L., Porter, A.C., Garet, M., Yoon, K.S., and Birman, B. (2002). Effects of professional development Elder, J. (2011, May). C hrista McAuliffe School: PS #28. 44 on teachers’ instruction: Results from a three-year lon- gitudinal study. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, [Presentation slides]. Presented at the National Research 24, 81-112. Council Workshop on Successful STEM Education in K-12 Schools. Available at: http://www7.nation- alacademies.org/bose/STEM_Schools_Workshop_ Hill, H.C. (2011). The nature and effects of mid- Presentation_Elder.pdf. dle school mathematics teacher learning experiences. Teachers’ College Record, 113, 205-234. 45 Stone, J.R., III. (2011). See note 33. Wilson, S. (2011). See note 57. 46 Schmidt, W.H. (2011). See note 7. 33

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SucceSSful K–12 STeM educaTion 61 73 Wilson, S. (2011). See note 57. Schmidt, W.H. (2011). See note 7. 62 74 U.S. Government Accountability Office. (2009). National Mathematics Advisory Panel. (2008). See No Child Left Behind Act: Enhancements in the Department note 41. of Education’s review process could improve state aca- demic assessments. GAO 09-911. Washington, DC: 75 Gamoran, A. (2010). Tracking and inequality: New Author. Quote taken from page 20. directions for research and practice. In M. Apple, S.J. Ball, and L.A. Gandin (Eds.), T he Routledge international handbook of the sociology of education, (pp. 63 Ibid. Quote taken from page 23. 213-228). London: Routledge. National Research Council. (2006a). Systems for 64 state science assessment. Washington, DC: The 76 Burris, C.C., Heubert, J.P., and Levin, H.M. (2006). National Academies Press. Quote taken from page 4. Accelerating mathematics achievement using het- erogeneous grouping. A merican Educational Research Journal, 43, 105-136. 65 Ibid. Quote taken from page 5. Center on Education Policy. (2007). C hoices, 66 Burris, C.C., Wiley, E., Welner, K., and Murphy, J. changes, and challenges: Curriculum and instruction in the (2008). Accountability, rigor, and detracking: NCLB era. Washington, DC: Author. Achievement effects of embracing a challenging curriculum as a universal good for all students. Center on Education Policy. (2008). Instructional Teachers College Record, 110, 571-607. 67 time in elementary schools: A closer look at changes for specific subjects. Washington, DC: Author. McLaughlin, M.W., and Talbert, J.E. (2006). Build- 77 ing school based teacher learning communities. New York: 68 Dorph, R., Goldstein, D., Lee, S., Lepori, K., Teachers College Press. Schneider, S., and Venkatesan, S. (2007). T he status of science education in the Bay Area: Research Newmann, F.M. (1996). Authentic achievement: Re- 78 brief. Berkeley, CA: Lawrence Hall of Science, structuring schools for intellectual quality. San Francisco: University of California, Berkeley. Quote taken Jossey-Bass. from page 1. Elmore, R.F., Peterson, P.L., and McCarthey, S.J. (1996). Restructuring in the classroom: Teaching, learning, 69 Ibid. Quote taken from page 4. and school organization. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. 70 Maltese, A.V., and Tai, R.H. (2010). Eyeballs in the fridge: Sources of early interest in science. Inter- Gamoran, A., Anderson, C.W., Quiroz, P.A., Secada, national Journal of Science Education, 32(5), 669-685. W.G., Williams, T., and Ashman, S. (2003). Transform- ing teaching in math and science: How schools and districts can support change. New York: Teachers College Press. 71 Hill et al. (2008). See note 8. Research Council. (2006b). A merica’s lab 72 National 79 Bryk et al. (2010). See note 2. report: Investigations in high school science. Washington, 80 Ibid. DC: The National Academies Press. National Research Council. (2007). Taking science 81 Ibid. to school: Learning and teaching science in grades K-8. 82 Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. National Research Council. (2010). See note 53. Quote taken from page 73. 34