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  • First design criteria for earthquake-resistant design of subways (Bay Area Rapid Transit, 1965)
  • First use of rock reinforcement for permanent support of U.S. transit stations (Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority, Peachtree Center, 1976)
  • First precast concrete segmental liners for U.S. transportation tunnels (Baltimore Lexington Market Tunnels, 1977)
  • First use of permanent structural slurry walls for transit construction (Bay Area Rapid Transit, 1965)
  • Permanent shot crete lining for tunnel support in weak sandstone (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center/Positron Electron Project, California, 1977)
  • Use of rock reinforcement to reduce the size and cost of tunnel lining (Glenwood Canyon Tunnels, Colorado, 1981; Rogers Pass Tunnel, British Columbia)
  • First use of New Austrian Tunneling Method design in U.S. transit tunnel (Mount Lebanon Tunnel, Pittsburgh, 1981)
  • Extension of state of the art in earthquake-resistant design; special design to exclude natural gas infiltration (Los Angeles Metro, 1966)

The greatest tribute to a civil engineer is the memorial of his structures that survive him, recognizing that a complex project is never the work of one person. They are all team efforts. But one name usually stands out as the driving force behind the project or the contributor of a critical design or decision that enabled the project to move forward. The list of such projects for Tom is lengthy, but a few deserve special mention.

NORAD (North American Air Defense Command Center)

When NORAD was being mined in Cheyenne Mountain, Colorado, an unforeseen and potentially unsafe shear zone was found at the intersection of two rock chambers, creating a construction crisis. Sitting in a café, Tom sketched an alternative



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