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design, which he described as a “grapefruit with four tin cans attached,” to support the rock loads. Tom detailed the design to resist nuclear blast effects and construction proceeded.

(Bay Area Rapid Transit, the first modern U.S. transit system)

From 1963 to 1968, on behalf of BART’s general engineering consultant joint venture, Tom directed the design of 20 miles of subways, 25 miles of aerial structures, two rock tunnels, and the 3.6-mile immersed tunnel between San Francisco and Oakland, California. In the course of his work, he developed the design basis for the resistance of underground structures to earthquakes.

Mount Macdonald/Rogers Pass Tunnel

The 9-mile Mount Macdonald/Rogers Pass Tunnel in British Columbia, Canada, the longest rail tunnel in North America, was driven under 5,500 feet of rock in a national park, which greatly constrained geotechnical exploration. Tom developed a series of generic designs that applied to different sections of the tunnel as conditions changed. This allowed work to proceed and eliminated disputes on differing site conditions.

Fort McHenry Tunnel, Maryland

Traffic volume in Baltimore demanded the widest immersed tube tunnel and the largest underwater highway tunnel in the world (at that time). With Tom as principal-in-charge, the project was successfully completed with many value engineering cost savings. The Fort McHenry Tunnel won major awards from the largest U.S. civil engineering societies.

Tom’s many other projects and contributions are too numerous to mention. But as a summary statement, those who worked closely with him described Tom as a leader, a teacher, a mentor, an advisor, a consultant, a problem solver, and, above all, a constant gentleman and a very nice human being.

Tom left behind his beloved wife of 51 years, Lucia Elodia, and two sons, Robert Livingston Kuesel and William Baldwin Kuesel, and five grandchildren.

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