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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this summary was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the summary were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This summary was funded under award numbers: HSHQDC-11-P-00027 from the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), HSFEHQ-09-P-1727 from the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), NNX08AZ32G from the National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA), and W912HQ-10-C-0016 from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). The opinions, findings and conclusions stated herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the DHS, FEMA, NASA, USACE.

The project described in this publication was supported by Grant/Cooperative Agreement Number G09AC00495 from the United States Geological Survey. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the USGS.

This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. (CMMI-1060460). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

This summary was funded in part by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (Task Order NA08OAR4590926). The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views, official policies, either expressed or implied, of NOAA.

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