B. Laboratory Performance
1. What forms of quality control and assurance should be followed?
2. How should samples be handled?
IV. Inference, Statistics, and Population Genetics in Human Nuclear DNA Testing
A. What Constitutes a Match or an Exclusion?
B. What Hypotheses Can Be Formulated About the Source?
C. Can the Match Be Attributed to Laboratory Error?
D. Could a Close Relative Be the Source?
E. Could an Unrelated Person Be the Source?
1. Estimating allele frequencies from samples
2. The product rule for a randomly mating population
3. The product rule for a structured population
F. Probabilities, Probative Value, and Prejudice
1. Frequencies and match probabilities
2. Likelihood ratios
3. Posterior probabilities
G. Verbal Expressions of Probative Value
1. “Rarity” or “strength” testimony
2. Source or uniqueness testimony
V. Special Issues in Human DNA Testing
A. Mitochondrial DNA
B. Y Chromosomes
D. Offender and Suspect Database Searches
1. Which statistics express the probative value of a match to a defendant located by searching a DNA database?
2. Near-miss (familial) searching
3. All-pairs matching within a database to verify estimated random-match probabilities
VI. Nonhuman DNA Testing
A. Species and Subspecies
B. Individual Organisms
Glossary of Terms
References on DNA
The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Reference Guide on DNA Identification Evidence--David H. Kaye and George Sensabaugh ."
Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence: Third Edition . Washington, DC: The National Academies Press,
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