individual to individual, thus providing a basis for individual recognition. VNTRs are longer than STRs.

window. See match window.

X chromosome. See chromosome.

Y chromosome. See chromosome.

References on DNA

Forensic DNA Interpretation (John Buckleton et al. eds., 2005).

John M. Butler, Fundamentals of Forensic DNA Typing (2010).

Ian W. Evett & Bruce S. Weir, Interpreting DNA Evidence: Statistical Genetics for Forensic Scientists (1998).

William Goodwin et al., An Introduction to Forensic Genetics (2d ed. 2011).

David H. Kaye, The Double Helix and the Law of Evidence (2010).

National Research Council Committee on DNA Forensic Science: An Update, The Evaluation of Forensic DNA Evidence (1996).

National Research Council Committee on DNA Technology in Forensic Science, DNA Technology in Forensic Science (1992).

The President’s DNA Initiative, Forensic DNA Resources for Specific Audiences, available at

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