C. Does a Graph Portray Data Fairly?
1. How are trends displayed?
2. How are distributions displayed?
D. Is an Appropriate Measure Used for the Center of a Distribution?
E. Is an Appropriate Measure of Variability Used?
IV. What Inferences Can Be Drawn from the Data?
1. What estimator should be used?
2. What is the standard error? The confidence interval?
3. How big should the sample be?
4. What are the technical difficulties?
B. Significance Levels and Hypothesis Tests
1. What is the p-value?
2. Is a difference statistically significant?
3. Tests or interval estimates?
4. Is the sample statistically significant?
C. Evaluating Hypothesis Tests
1. What is the power of the test?
2. What about small samples?
3. One tail or two?
4. How many tests have been done?
5. What are the rival hypotheses?
D. Posterior Probabilities
V. Correlation and Regression
A. Scatter Diagrams
B. Correlation Coefficients
1. Is the association linear?
2. Do outliers influence the correlation coefficient?
3. Does a confounding variable influence the coefficient?
C. Regression Lines
1. What are the slope and intercept?
2. What is the unit of analysis?
D. Statistical Models
A. Frequentists and Bayesians
B. The Spock Jury: Technical Details
C. The Nixon Papers: Technical Details
D. A Social Science Example of Regression: Gender Discrimination in Salaries
1. The regression model
2. Standard errors, t-statistics, and statistical significance
Glossary of Terms
References on Statistics
The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Reference Guide on Statistics--David H. Kaye and David A. Freedman ."
Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence: Third Edition . Washington, DC: The National Academies Press,
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