IV. Survey Questions and Structure
A. Were Questions on the Survey Framed to Be Clear, Precise, and Unbiased?
B. Were Some Respondents Likely to Have No Opinion? If So, What Steps Were Taken to Reduce Guessing?
C. Did the Survey Use Open-Ended or Closed-Ended Questions? How Was the Choice in Each Instance Justified?
D. If Probes Were Used to Clarify Ambiguous or Incomplete Answers, What Steps Were Taken to Ensure That the Probes Were Not Leading and Were Administered in a Consistent Fashion?
E. What Approach Was Used to Avoid or Measure Potential Order or Context Effects?
F. If the Survey Was Designed to Test a Causal Proposition, Did the Survey Include an Appropriate Control Group or Question?
G. What Limitations Are Associated with the Mode of Data Collection Used in the Survey?
1. In-person interviews
2. Telephone interviews
3. Mail questionnaires
4. Internet surveys
V. Surveys Involving Interviewers
A. Were the Interviewers Appropriately Selected and Trained?
B. What Did the Interviewers Know About the Survey and Its Sponsorship?
C. What Procedures Were Used to Ensure and Determine That the Survey Was Administered to Minimize Error and Bias?
VI. Data Entry and Grouping of Responses
A. What Was Done to Ensure That the Data Were Recorded Accurately?
B. What Was Done to Ensure That the Grouped Data Were Classified Consistently and Accurately?
VII. Disclosure and Reporting
A. When Was Information About the Survey Methodology and Results Disclosed?
B. Does the Survey Report Include Complete and Detailed Information on All Relevant Characteristics?
C. In Surveys of Individuals, What Measures Were Taken to Protect the Identities of Individual Respondents?
Glossary of Terms
References on Survey Research
The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Reference Guide on Survey Research--Shari Seidman Diamond ."
Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence: Third Edition . Washington, DC: The National Academies Press,
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