B. What Biases May Have Contributed to an Erroneous Association?
1. Selection bias
2. Information bias
3. Other conceptual problems
C. Could a Confounding Factor Be Responsible for the Study Result?
1. What techniques can be used to prevent or limit confounding?
2. What techniques can be used to identify confounding factors?
3. What techniques can be used to control for confounding factors?
V. General Causation: Is an Exposure a Cause of the Disease?
A. Is There a Temporal Relationship?
B. How Strong Is the Association Between the Exposure and Disease?
C. Is There a Dose–Response Relationship?
D. Have the Results Been Replicated?
E. Is the Association Biologically Plausible (Consistent with Existing Knowledge)?
F. Have Alternative Explanations Been Considered?
G. What Is the Effect of Ceasing Exposure?
H. Does the Association Exhibit Specificity?
I. Are the Findings Consistent with Other Relevant Knowledge?
VI. What Methods Exist for Combining the Results of Multiple Studies?
VII. What Role Does Epidemiology Play in Proving Specific Causation?
Glossary of Terms
References on Epidemiology
References on Law and Epidemiology
The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Reference Guide on Epidemiology--Michael D. Green, D. Michal Freedman, and Leon Gordis ."
Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence: Third Edition . Washington, DC: The National Academies Press,
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