pain? Does the detailed memory of a kidney stone pain look any different from the present sensation of low back pain? Can a subject effectively convince himself that he is feeling pain and so appear to the scanner to be experiencing pain? The answers to these questions are clear—we do not yet know.

Pain detection also would raise legal questions. Could a plaintiff be forced to undergo a “pain scan”? If a plaintiff offered a pain scan in evidence, could the defendant compel the plaintiff to undergo such a scan with the defendant’s machine and expert? Would it matter if the scan were itself painful or even dangerous? Who would pay for these scans and for the experts to interpret them?

Detecting pain would be a form of neuroscience evidence with straightforward and far-reaching applications to the legal system. Whether it can be done, and, if so, how accurately it can be done, remain to be seen. So does the legal system’s reaction to this possibility.

VII. Conclusion

Atomic physicist Niels Bohr is credited with having said “It is always hard to predict things, especially the future.”82 It seems highly likely that the massively increased understanding of the human brain that neuroscience is providing will have significant effects on the law and, more specifically, on the courts. Just what those effects will be cannot be accurately predicted, but we hope that this guide will provide some useful background to help judges cope with whatever neuroscience evidence comes their way.

82. This quotation has been attributed to many people, especially Yogi Berra, but Bohr seems to be the most likely candidate, even though it does not appear in anything he published. See discussion in Henry T. Greely, Trusted Systems and Medical Records: Lowering Expectations, 52 Stan. L. Rev. 1585, 1591–92 n.9 (2000). One of the authors, however, recently had a conversation with a scientist from Denmark, who knew the phrase (in Danish) as an old Danish saying and not something original with Bohr.

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