American College of Medical Toxicology, 678

American College of Physicians, 735

American College of Radiology, 727

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 529 n.65

American Honda Motor Co. v. Allen, 31

American Industrial Hygiene Association, 539, 540

American Law Institute, 890 n.30

American Lift Institute (ALI), 924

American Medical Association, 677 n.115, 735

American National Standards Institute (ANSI), 906, 924

American Osteopathic Association (AOA), 697-698, 699, 700

American paddlefish, 194

American Petroleum Institute, 678

American Physical Society, 46

American Psychiatric Association, 828, 830, 831, 869, 879 n.358

American Psychiatric Nurses Association, 826 n.69

American Psychological Association, 367, 824 nn.54, 57, & 59, 875

American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), 906

American Society of Crime Lab Directors/Laboratory Accreditation Board (ASCLD/LAB), 68, 69 nn.76 & 78, 154 n.48, 156 n.52

American Society of Internal Medicine, 735

American Urological Association, 727, 735

Americans with Disabilities Act, 816, 833 n.105

Ames, Aldrich, 805

Amicus curiae briefs, 5, 30, 371, 797-798

Anecdotal evidence, 59 n.17, 85, 217, 218, 220, 310, 677 n.115, 809

Anthrax, 194, 713

Antibodies, 199

Antigens, 199, 202, 203, 735

Antitrust litigation, 22, 31 n.90, 213, 226 n.36, 260, 305, 306, 307 n.7, 313, 320, 321 n.48, 326, 328, 348 n.90, 365, 366 n.25, 373, 429 n.1, 431, 439, 475, 491 n.89, 498, 728

Aplastic anemia, 561, 724, 731

Appraisal approaches, 242-244, 248-249, 278, 444, 445-446, 447, 501

Asbestos, 248 n.93, 489, 519 n.36, 523, 532 n.67, 551 n.3, 573 n.68, 585 n.104, 587, 588 n.114, 606, 607 n.171, 609 n.178, 614, 615, 626, 627, 635, 640, 643-644 n.28, 652, 653, 669, 672, 676, 694, 724, 920

Association of American Medical Colleges, 695, 696 n.34

Association of Firearm and Tool Mark Examiners (AFTE), 93, 94, 95, 97 n.258, 100 n.273

Association of Social Work Boards, 826 n.67

Association of State and Provincial Psychology Boards, 873

Associations (see also Causation)

aggregation of data from multiple sources and, 235

biological plausibility, 20, 573, 600, 604-605, 606, 620, 664-665

causation and, 20, 218, 221, 222, 262, 264, 552-553, 559, 562, 566, 567, 570, 571, 574, 577 n.81, 578 n.85, 584, 591, 592-593, 604-605, 610 n.184, 664-665

confounders, 262-264

correlation coefficients, 213, 227, 228, 260, 261-264, 265, 266, 286, 290, 301, 333

defined, 552 n.7

ecological correlations, 266, 267

exposure–disease, 552-553, 554, 555-556, 557, 559, 561, 566, 567-568, 570, 572, 573, 574-575, 576, 577, 578 n.85, 579, 580, 581, 582, 583, 584, 585, 586 nn.107 & 108, 588 n.115, 589, 590, 591-593, 595, 597-606, 610 n.184, 611-612, 613, 622



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