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The Federal Judicial Center contributed to this publication in furtherance of the Center’s statutory mission to develop and conduct educational programs for judicial branch employees. The views expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the Federal Judicial Center.

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

The development of the third edition of the Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence was supported by Contract No. B5727.R02 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Carnegie Corporation of New York and a grant from the Starr Foundation. The views expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the National Academies or the organizations that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-21421-6
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-21421-1

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Reference manual on scientific evidence. — 3rd ed.

       p. cm.
  Includes bibliographical references and index.
  ISBN-13: 978-0-309-21421-6 (pbk.)
  ISBN-10: 0-309-21421-1 (pbk.)
1. Evidence, Expert—United States. I. Federal Judicial Center.
  KF8961.R44 2011
  347.73´67—dc23

2011031458

Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu.

Copyright 2011 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America



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