at rest, that one must provide at least this energy to break the molecule apart, and that it likewise takes energy to break apart stable solid matter.

Boundary Statement. The following topics are not required: the structures within protons and neutrons, the existence of quarks, and the relationship between (a) the strong forces between quarks and (b) the “strong nuclear” force between protons and neutrons.


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2. Krajcik, J., McNeill, K.L., and Reiser, B.J. (2008). Learning-goals-driven design model: Curriculum materials that align with national standards and incorporate project-based pedagogy. Science Education, 92(1), 1-32.

3. Berland, L.K., and McNeill, K.L. (2010). A learning progression for scientific argumentation: Understanding student work and designing supportive instructional contexts. Science Education, 94(1), 765-793.

4. College Board. (2009). Science College Board Standards for College Success. Available: [March 2011].

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