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Lehrer, R., Schauble, L., and Lucas, D. (2008). Supporting development of the epistemology of inquiry. Cognitive Development, 23(4), 512-529.

Metz, K.E. (2004). Children’s understanding of scientific inquiry: Their conceptualization of uncertainty in investigations of their own design. Cognition and Instruction, 22(2), 219-290.

Metz, K.E. (2008). Narrowing the gulf between the practices of science and the elementary school science classroom. Elementary School Journal, 109(2), 138-161.

Osborne, J., Erduran, S., and Simon, S. (2004). Enhancing the quality of argumentation in school science. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 41(10), 994-1,020.

Sampson, V., and Clark, D. (2008). Assessment of the ways students generate arguments in science education: Current perspectives and recommendations for future directions. Science Education, 92, 447-472.

Schwarz, C.V., Reiser, B.J., Davis, E.A., Kenyon, L., Acher, A., Fortus, D., Shwartz, Y., Hug, B., and Krajcik, J. (2009). Developing a learning progression for scientific modeling: Making scientific modeling accessible and meaningful for learners. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 46(6), 632-654.

Schwarz, C.V., Reiser, B.J., Kenyon, L.O., Acher, A., and Fortus, D. (in press). Issues and challenges in defining a learning progression for scientific modeling. In A. Alonzo and A.W. Gotwals (Eds.), Learning Progressions for Science. Boston, MA: Sense.

Simon, S., Erduran, S., and Osborne, J. (2006). Learning to teach argumentation: Research and development in the science classroom. International Journal of Science Education, 28(2-3), 235-260.

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REFERENCES FOR DISCIPLINARY CORE IDEAS

The committee consulted the references below to inform the development of the core ideas and their components and to develop the grade band endpoints. The research evidence was considered to determine which ideas students might be able to engage with at a given grade band given appropriate instructional support, as well as where they might have difficulty or hold preconceptions that conflict with scientific explanations. The committee also reviewed draft documents from the Massachusetts Department of Education compiled to support science standards that are informed by research on learning progressions.



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