Physical Sciences

Ashbrook, P. (2008). Air is a substance. Science and Children, 46(4), 12-13.

Feher, E., and Rice, K. (2006). Shadows and anti-images: Children’s conceptions of light and vision II. Science Education, 72(5), 637-649.

Haupt, G.W. (2006). Concepts of magnetism held by elementary school children. Science Education, 36(3), 162-168.

Lehrer, R., Schauble, L., Strom, D., and Pligge, M. (2001). Similarity of form and substance: From inscriptions to models. In D. Klahr and S. Carver (Eds.), Cognition and Instruction: 25 Years of Progress (pp. 39-74). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Palmeri, A., Cole, A., DeLisle, S., Erickson, S., and Janes, J. (2008). What’s the matter with teaching children about matter? Science and Children, 46(4), 20-23.

Smith, C.L., Solomon, G.E.A., and Carey, S. (2005). Never getting to zero: Elementary school students’ understanding of the infinite divisibility of number and matter. Cognitive Psychology, 51, 101-140.

Smith, C.L., Wiser, M., Anderson, C.W., and Krajcik, J. (2006). Implications of research on children’s learning for standards and assessment: A proposed learning progression for matter and the atomic molecular theory. Measurement: Interdisciplinary Research and Perspectives, 4, 1-98.

Stevens, S.Y., Delgado, C., and Krajcik, J.S. (2009). Developing a hypothetical multi-dimensional learning progression for the nature of matter. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 47, 687-715.

Life Sciences

Barrett, J.E., and Clements, D.H. (2003). Quantifying path length: Fourth-grade children’s developing abstractions for linear measurement. Cognition and Instruction, 21(4), 475-520.

Carey, S. (1986). Conceptual Change in Childhood. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Carpenter, T.P., Fennema, E., Franke, M.L., Levi, L., and Empson, S.B. (1999). Children’s Mathematics. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Catley, K., Lehrer, R., and Reiser, B. (2005). Tracing a Prospective Learning Progression for Developing Understanding of Evolution. Paper commissioned by the National Academies Committee on Test Design for K-12 Science Achievement. Available: [June 2011]. Cobb, P., McClain, K., and Gravemeijer, K. (2003). Learning about statistical covariation. Cognition and Instruction, 21(1), 1-78.

Demastes, S.S., Good, R.G., and Peebles, P. (1995). Students’ conceptual ecologies and the process of conceptual change in evolution. Science Education, 79(6), 637-666.

The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement