and co-chaired the Committee on Learning Science in Informal Environments. He has a Ph.D. in education in human cognition and development from the University of California, Berkeley.

Thomas B. Corcoran is co-director of the Consortium for Policy Research and Education (CPRE) at Teachers College of Columbia University. He has been a state policy maker, a designer of programs to improve teaching, a researcher, an evaluator, and an adviser to governors, state legislatures, foundations, and reform organizations. His research interests focus on the linkages between research and practice, the use of evidence-based instructional practices, the design of knowledge transfer systems for public education, the effectiveness of professional development, and the impact of changes in work environments on the productivity of teachers and students. He heads the Center on Continuous Instructional Improvement and Teachers College projects in Jordan and Thailand. At the National Research Council, he served on the Committee on Science Learning, K-8. Since 1998 he has taught policy analysis at the Woodrow Wilson School of International and Public Affairs at Princeton University. He has an M.Ed. from the University of London.

Rodolfo Dirzo is professor of biology at Stanford University. A tropical forest ecologist and conservation biologist, he has performed seminal work on evolutionary ecology. He carried out classical experimental studies on the ecosystem significance of biodiversity loss, fragmentation, and deforestation. He is a foreign associate of the National Academy of Sciences as well as a member of the Mexican Academy of Sciences and of the California Academy of Sciences. He has been awarded the Presidential Award in Ecology from the secretary of environment of Mexico. He was a Pew Scholar in Conservation and received its Outstanding Service Award: Teaching, Organization for Tropical Studies. He has M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees from the University of Wales.

Phillip A. Griffiths is director emeritus and professor of mathematics at the Institute for Advanced Study, which he led from 1991 to 2003. He was formerly provost and James B. Duke professor of mathematics at Duke University and professor of mathematics at Harvard University. Over the last four decades, he has made crucial contributions in several fields, including complex analysis, algebraic geometry, and differential systems. He chaired the committee that produced the Carnegie Corporation report The Opportunity Equation. He served on the



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