on most of the major projects of the board since it was formed in 2004. She served as study director for a review of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s pre-college education programs in 2007 and co-directed the study that produced the 2007 report Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8. She co-authored two award-winning books for practitioners that translate findings of NRC reports for a broader audience: Ready, Set, Science!: Putting Research to Work in K-8 Science Classrooms (2008) and Surrounded by Science (2010). Prior to joining the NRC, Schweingruber worked as a senior research associate at the Institute of Education Sciences in the U.S. Department of Education where she administered the preschool curriculum evaluation program and a grant program in mathematics education. Previously, she was the director of research for the Rice University School Mathematics Project. She holds a Ph.D. in psychology (developmental) and anthropology and a certificate in culture and cognition from the University of Michigan.

Walter G. Secada is senior associate dean of the School of Education and chair of the Department of Teaching and Learning at the University of Miami (UM). Previously, he was professor of curriculum and instruction at the University of Wisconsin–Madison and the director of diversity in mathematics education. His research interests have included equity in education, mathematics education, bilingual education, school restructuring, professional development of teachers, student engagement, and reform. He was associate director and co-principal investigator of Promoting Science among English Language Learners (P-SELL) with a High-Stakes Testing Environment, associate director and co-principal investigator of Science Made Sensible, and a member of the university’s social sciences institutional review board. He has worked on the development of a secondary school mathematics and science academy at UM. As director of the U.S. Department of Education’s Hispanic Dropout Project, he was senior author of its final report, No More Excuses. He has a B.A. in philosophy from the University of Notre Dame and an M.S. in mathematics and a Ph.D. in education, both from Northwestern University.

Deborah C. Smith is assistant professor in the Department of Curriculum and Instruction at Pennsylvania State University. She teaches elementary science methods and graduate courses in science curriculum; the history, philosophy, and sociology of science; and science teacher knowledge. She is a former preschool and elementary school teacher, with a background in biology. Her research

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