formative, 261

framework impact on, 323-324

implementation challenges, 260-265

individual student’s understanding, 315

paper-and-pencil format, 262

for program evaluation, 261

purposes, 261-262

research and development agenda, 314-315, 317-319, 323-324

standards and accountability and, 323-324

student engagement, 314

summative, 261

Association for Computing Machinery, 344

Association for Science Teacher Education, 344

Atlas of Science Literacy, 13, 303

Atoms and atomic theory of matter, 34, 57, 64, 79, 86, 87-88, 89, 92, 94, 96, 97-98, 100, 101, 103, 106-107, 108-109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 117, 118, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 134, 135-136, 140, 143, 153-154, 173, 225, 227, 229, 230, 233, 236-237, 238, 239-240, 303

B

Behavioral and social sciences, 13-14, 334, 335-336

Benchmarks for Science Literacy, 13, 16, 17, 23, 30, 89, 103, 141, 301

Beta particles, 112

Big Bang, 67, 112, 173, 174

Binding energy in molecules, 109, 110, 111, 112, 239-240

Biodiversity, 139, 141, 155, 161, 165, 166-167, 195, 196

Biogeology, 189-190

Biological evolution

adaptation, 141, 164-166

biodiversity and humans, 139, 161, 166-167

biogeology and, 189-190

common ancestry and diversity, 162-163

grade band endpoints, 162-163, 164, 165-167

natural selection, 141, 143, 161, 162, 163-164, 165, 166

reproductive isolation, 165

scale of, 100

scientific evidence of, 161, 162-163

speciation, 154, 155, 161, 165, 166, 167

Biological systems, 107, 140, 143, 144-145, 147, 148

Biotechnology Institute, 344

C

Carbon cycle, 110, 153, 154, 180, 189-190, 198, 223

Carbon dioxide, 57, 64, 92, 95, 100, 110, 129, 130, 147, 148, 186, 187, 188, 223

Carnegie Corporation, 19

Carrying capacities, 151, 152, 154

Cause-and-effect mechanisms (see also Forces and motion)

argumentation from evidence, 89

asking questions about, 50, 89

constructing explanations, 67, 69-70, 86

definition of concept, 84-85

in earth science, 167, 169-170, 179-180, 181, 184, 185, 187, 190, 192

in ecosystems, 86, 89, 93, 167

energy-related, 125-126, 237

and engineering design, 88, 98-99, 169-170

feedback loops, 98-99, 169-170, 181, 190

goals of instruction, 69, 88

human impacts on Earth, 167, 187, 192

learning progression, 88-89, 223

in life sciences, 140, 145, 157-158, 160, 161, 167

modeling, 79, 86, 88, 93, 221, 229

pattern recognition, 86, 88-89

physical laws and, 87-88

in physical sciences, 100, 103, 107, 112, 113, 114, 115-116, 125-126, 127, 132, 223, 229, 237

scale, proportion, or quantity and, 88, 111, 113

in space science, 175, 176

stability and change, 98, 100

in systems, 87, 88, 89, 93, 103, 169-170, 180, 181, 182-183, 188, 192, 195, 223, 229

Cells, biological, 89, 94, 130, 134, 136, 140, 143-147, 148, 149, 158, 159, 221, 223, 303

Charge to committee, 1, 15, 16

Chemical energy, 111, 122, 123, 148, 223

Chemical reactions, 110

Chemosynthesis, 147

Chromosomes, 144, 146-147, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161

Classification skills, 43, 78, 84, 85, 86, 87, 108, 167, 220, 222, 224, 231

Climate (see Weather and climate)

Climate Literacy Network, 344

College Board, 13, 16, 17, 23, 30, 96, 141, 218, 230, 303

Common Core State Standards, 19, 75, 297, 306, 339

Communicating information, 42, 49, 278

arguments from evidence, 74-75, 77, 278



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