Furthermore, with regard to chronic diseases, causality is rarely limited to a single factor.

For those reasons, the present VAO committee has not adopted the suggestion to perform what would be in effect a checklist approach to distilling evidence concerning underlying causality for any observed statistical association between a human health effect and exposure to the components of the herbicides sprayed in Vietnam. The committee interprets its charge to be to summarize the scientific evidence for consideration by the Secretary, whose role is to make the policy decision of whether a contribution by herbicide exposure to the occurrence of an adverse health effect is likely enough to merit recognition as a presumptive condition.


Abell A, Juul S, Bonde JP. 2000. Time to pregnancy among female greenhouse workers. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health 26(2):131–136.

Aposhian HV, Gurzau ES, Le XC, Gurzau A, Healy SM, Lu X, Ma M, Yip L, Zakharyan RA, Maiorino RM, Dart RC, Tircus MG, Gonzalez-Ramirez D, Morgan DL, Avram D, Aposhian MM. 2000. Occurrence of monomethylarsonous acid in urine of humans exposed to inorganic arsenic. Chemical Research in Toxicology 13(8):693–697.

Cohen S, Janicki-Deverts D, Miller GE. 2007. Psychological stress and disease. Journal of the American Medical Association 298(14):1685–1687.

Cohen SM, Arnold LL, Eldan M, Lewis AS, Beck BD. 2006. Methylated arsenicals: The implications of metabolism and carcinogenicity studies in rodents to human risk assessment. Critical Reviews in Toxicology 36(2):99–133.

Czarnota MA. 2004. Weed Control in Greenhouses: Bulletin 1246. University of Georgia, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Cooperative Extension.

DeVito MJ, Birnbaum LS, Farland WH, Gasiewicz TA. 1995. Comparisons of estimated human body burdens of dioxin-like chemicals and TCDD body burdens in experimentally exposed animals. Environmental Health Perspectives 103(9):820–831.

Egger M, Ebrahim S, Smith GD. 2002. Where now for meta-analysis? International Journal of Epidemiology 31(1):1–5.

Ema M, Ohe N, Suzuki M, Mimura J, Sogawa K, Ikawa S, Fujii-Kuriyama Y. 1994. Dioxin binding activities of polymorphic forms of mouse and human arylhydrocarbon receptors. Journal of Biological Chemistry 269(44):27337–27343.

Hansen ES, Hasle H, Lander F. 1992. A cohort study on cancer incidence among Danish gardeners. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 21(5):651–660.

Hill AB. 1965. The environment and disease: Association or causation? Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 58:295–300.

Holman DJ, Arnold-Reed DE, de Klerk N, McComb C, English D. 2001. A psychometric experiment in casual inference to estimate evidential weights used by epidemiologists. Epidemiology 12(2):246–255.


1 Throughout this report, the same alphabetic indicator after year of publication is used consistently for a given reference when there are multiple citations by the same first author in a given year. The convention of assigning the alphabetic indicators in order of citation in a given chapter is not followed.

The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement