TABLE 3-1 Military Use of Herbicides in Vietnam (1961–1971)

Code Name Chemical Constituentsa Concentration of
Active Ingredienta
Years
Useda
Amount Sprayed
VAO Estimateb
Revised Estimatea
Pink 60% n-butyl ester 40% isobutyl ester of 961-1,081 g/L acid 1961,1965 464,817 L 50,312 L sprayed; 413,852 L
2,4,5-T equivalent (122,792 gal) additional on procurement records
Green /i-butyl ester of 2,4,5-T 1961, 1965 31,071 L (8,208 gal) 31,026 L on procurement records
Purple 50% w-butyl ester of 2,4-D, 30% /i-butyl ester 1,033 g/L acid 1962-1965 548,883 L 1,892,733 L
of 2,4,5-T, 20% isobutyl ester of 2,4,5-T equivalent (145,000 gal)
Orange 50% rt-butyl ester of 2,4-D, 50% /i-butyl ester 1,033 g/L acid 1965-1970 42.629,013 L 45,677,937 L (could include
of 2,4,5-T equivalent (11,261,429 gal) Agent Orange II)
Orange II 50% /i-butyl ester of 2,4-D, 50% isooctyl 910 g/L acid After 1968 Unknown; at least 3,591,000 L
ester of 2,4,5-T equivalent shipped
White Acid weight basis: 21.2% triisopropanolamine By acid weight, 240 1966-1971 19.860.108 L 20,556,525 L
salts of 2.4-D, 5.7% picloram g/L 2,4-D, 65 g/L picloram (5,246,502 gal)
Blue powder Cacodylic acid (dimethylarsinic acid) sodium cacodylate Acid, 65% active ingredient; salt, 70% active ingredient 1962-1964 25,650 L
Blue aqueous 21% sodium cacodylate + cacodylic acid to Acid weight, 360 g/L 1964-1971 4,255,952 L 4,715,731 L
solution yield at least 26% total acid equivalent by weight (1,124,307 gal)
Total, all formulations 67,789.844 L (17,908,238 gal) 76,954,766 L (including procured)

aBased on Stellman et al. (2003a).

bBased on data from MRI (1967), NRC (1974), and Young and Reggiani (1988).



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