o   Establish research coordination networks (RCNs) that will be responsible for integrating research across domains and dimensions of community resilience, encompassing natural, built environment, and socioeconomic systems.

•   Facilities

o   There must be both distributed and networked facilities and “observatories.”

o   The design must take on a concept of a “laboratory without walls.”

o   Need a capability to integrate experimental testing and simulations with a more holistic understanding of communities, stakeholders, and decisions/motivations.

o   Need basic research on interdependencies among systems and dimensions of resilience, and analytic tools for resilience measurement that take those interdependencies into account.

o   Need a “hosting” capability that can accommodate evolving community data and coordinating models that use that data to produce further-derived data.

o   Cyberinfrastructure for laboratories without walls. Develop information technology to support the concept of a laboratory without walls, linking field tests/observations with experimental and simulation studies.

•   Impact of Solution to Grand Challenge

o   Will provide first-ever holistic approach to resilience measurement at community scale, as well as guidance for specific interventions to enhance resilience.

o   User expectations will be clarified, or even improved/enhanced, and will improve practice/applications.

•   Projects Addressing the Grand Challenge

o   Define best practices in resilience methods. Inventory the resilience methods/studies/metrics performed at different scales (communities, regions) and for different community components (buildings, lifelines, social networks, economy).

o   Define structural resilience. Use performance-based engineering (PBE) technologies to develop building performance objectives that can be associated with resiliency objectives.

o   Define lifeline resilience. Use PBE technologies to develop lifeline performance objectives that can be associated with resiliency objectives. This could be a project for every lifeline system.

o   Develop and test resiliency metrics. Research, develop, and test various methods for quantifying resilience and determine the best method for stakeholder decision making.

o   Investigate infrastructure interaction effects. Perform basic research including full-scale testing and simulation of buildings and lifeline systems to investigate interactions.

o   Create a resilience observation pilot study. It might be a candidate city, neighborhood, or group of buildings (Sample City Concept). Set a baseline and observe actions/changes over time to define metrics and timeframes of resiliency dynamics.

o   Development of a city as a resilient city (e.g., Hayward, Seattle, or Los Angeles). Include: building inventory, instrumentation for ground motions and structures, vulnerability and loss estimation studies, and yet-to-be-developed methodologies. Assessments of upgrade requirements off the built environment for a resilient city. State of the organization and state and local governments, and disaster-related organizations. Documentation as part of the observatory.

o   Multi-scale simulation modeling. Develop simulation models that link the performance of buildings and lifelines to communities.

o   Develop data-intensive methods for using public and social network information and online network activity of all sorts to determine and develop resiliency metrics.

o   Quantitative recovery modeling. Develop theoretically and empirically based models of post-earthquake recovery processes. Models should be integrated across dimensions of recovery (infrastructures, housing, business/commercial facilities, public institutions, social/economic processes); should be incorporated into simulation models that forecast recovery rates and patterns after major earthquakes; and should consider resilience, adaptation, and sustainability.

o   Develop the base model of a city by using remote sensing of existing infrastructure, inventory, and condition. Network model interdependencies and identify regions subject to cascading engineering failures.

Grand Challenge Problem: Motivating Action to Enhance Community Resilience (2CR)

•   Description of Problem

o   Research has yielded numerous findings related to community resilience, yet many of these findings are not influencing decisions and actions on the part of key decision makers such as private-sector facility owners and public-sector institutions. There is a need for basic research to explore a variety of mechanisms for motivating action, including (but not limited to) providing information and developing incentives for action that are meaningful to various constituencies, ranging from laws and regulations to informally applied norms.

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