BOX 1.2
Four Dimensions as an Organizing Principle for the Workshop

As an organizing principle for the workshop, the committee defined four dimensions to achieve the vision for an earthquake-resilient society. Examples of topics in each dimension are defined below. These were used as a starting point for the discussions at the workshop.

Community resilience

  • Defining community response and recovery needs.
  • Obtaining community-based information and experiences that can be used for policy development.
  • Collecting, processing, analyzing, and disseminating information.
  • Pervasive information sharing and decision making through social networking and crowd-sourcing technology.
  • Understanding social dynamics that influence community decisions and actions.

Pre-event prediction and planning

  • Damage prediction and the estimation of the impacts and losses for individual buildings, lifelines, and societal systems.
  • Validated and reliable models of soil-foundation-building systems, non-structural systems, and building contents.
  • Design of lifeline systems for multiple performance objectives and multiple levels of ground motion.
  • Models of inventory that can be validated and updated for regional impact assessment and loss estimation.
  • Predictive model of system performance and interdependencies.
  • Social, human, and economic resilience modeling, and the effects on adaptability after a disaster.
  • Modeling of effects of governance on resilience, such as regulatory regimes, emergency decision-making processes, and recovery policies.

Design of infrastructure

  • Analysis and design approaches, strategies, and methods for systems, components, and materials, including new infrastructure, rehabilitation of existing infrastructure, and repair of damaged infrastructure.
  • Infrastructure design for individual buildings, lifelines, and urban environments as complex systems.
  • Transparent and performance-based approaches for buildings and lifelines along with other approaches that achieve multiple objectives for resiliency.

Post-event response and recovery

  • Post-event sensing, damage diagnosis, and prognosis of individual facilities and interdependent infrastructure systems in dense urban environments.
  • Use of sensing systems for emergency response, including assessment, prioritization, dispatching, and decision making.
  • Real-time model updating and validation.
  • Social networking and crowd-sourcing technologies for understanding complex societal dynamics, including temporary changes in governance after an event and during recovery.

Kathleen Tierney, University of Colorado, Boulder; John Egan, AMEC Geomatrix; Ken Elwood, University of British Columbia; and Sharon Wood, University of Texas at Austin—also served as chief spokespersons for their breakout group in plenary sessions. Each breakout session allowed ample time for discussion, interaction, and iteration, followed by a report in the plenary sessions with refinement by participants.

Summary of Keynote Presentations

The first three presentations focused on identifying and describing the Grand Challenges. Laurie Johnson discussed needs and opportunities for networked facilities and cyberinfrastructure in support of basic and applied research on community resilience, including the need to develop more robust models of building risk/resiliency and aggregate inventories of community risk/resiliency for use in mitigation, land use planning, and emergency planning. Reginald DesRoches discussed a number of challenges faced by lifeline facilities, including their wide range in scale and spatial distribution, the fact that lifelines are partially or completely buried and are therefore strongly influenced by soil-structure interaction, their increasing interconnectedness, and their aging and deterioration. Gregory Deierlein discussed methods for addressing the research needs and challenges for buildings, which he distinguished between those associated with either pre-earthquake planning, design and construction, or post-earthquake response, evaluation, and restoration.

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