tic position may not be attentive to changing demand and may develop institutional structures that resist change.

With respect to organizational barriers in an individual agency, Haltiwanger said that in his view the location of a research organization within the agency is very important. Agency research organizations are properly dedicated to the function of research, although they can still be integrated into the work of the agency.

Users as a Barrier

With respect to the barriers to innovation, Eva Jacobs (Bureau of Labor Statistics) noted that sometimes the user is the barrier. For example, users of the consumer price index (CPI) and other surveys do not like change in the time series or the questions that are asked. In order to produce anything new in the CPI, you have to sell it, she said—both to labor organizations and to business organizations.



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